Imagens das páginas

This little book is valuable because compact with Marxian information and argument, tracing the family, industry, and property from primitive to modern times. Tribal communism in land, family collectivism, and feudalism prepare in turn the way for modern private property. The instruments of labor, however, unlike land, have always been personal property. The artisan classes are differentiated from the agricultural, and produce commodities for which orders have been received in advance. Gradually they become independent, and as traders produce for the market. The substitution of capitalistic rights for feudal obligations combined with a parallel substitution of an industry for the family, village, or province as the economic unit, points to the time when a vast corporation through its world-strung plants will "produce the raw material, transform it into industrial products, and sell them to the customer." At that time the capitalist will have ceased to be useful and will disappear. Political economists, "the overpaid apologists of bourgeois society," may object to certain definitions which beg the question at issue, namely socialism, and may not agree with the rapid conclusions of the closing pages.

Ohio State University.


The Conflict between Individualism and Collectivism in a Democracy. By CHARLES W. ELIOT. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1910. Pp. vii, 135.)

The three lectures published in this volume were delivered in November, 1909, at the University of Virginia on the BarbourPage Foundation. In them President Eliot reviews the conflict between individualism and collectivism in the three fields: industries and trades, education, and government. He does not attempt to bring out any novel facts in reference to this conflict, but rather, by sympathetic description and careful analysis, to interpret the significant movements of the day from his particular point of view.

By collectivism, he is careful to state, he means not state socialism, with which he has little sympathy, but coöperative action, however it manifests itself. Thus the collectivism he has in mind "maintains private property, the inheritance of property, the family as the unit of society, and the liberty of the individual as a fundamental right; and it relies for the progress of society on

the personal virtues rightly called 'homely', because they have to do with the maintenance of the home-namely, industry, frugality, prudence, domestic affection, independence, emulation, and energy." With this collectivism he is in full accord, although he recognizes the propensity of reformers, in their zeal for the collective good, to overlook the indispensable rôle that must still be assigned to individualism.

Since 1870 the pendulum in the United States has, he believes, swung markedly in the direction of collectivism. Concentration in industry has gone forward rapidly; the parallel concentration of population in cities and division of labor have made necessary a great extension of the functions of government; increasing appreciation of the importance of education has caused greatly increased expenditures for schools, colleges and universities and has imposed higher educational standards on backward communities than the individuals in those communities would themselves demand. To conclude from this that concentration will continue until government ownership and operation of the means of production supercede individual ownership seems to Dr. Eliot illogical and unhistorical. He believes that the best service to be expected from the state is the enforcement of publicity and the imposition of reasonable restraints on the monopolizing greed of the great industrial combinations. Also he is of the opinion that a reaction in the direction of individualism may soon be expected.

To economists these lectures are interesting, not because they throw any new light on the subjects discussed, but for the reason that they voice the mature judgment touching many of the important economic questions of the day, of one of the most distinguished leaders of contemporary thought.


Columbia University.


ANDLER, C. Les origines du socialisme d'état en Allemagne. (Paris: Alcan. 1910. 7 fr.)

This is the second edition, enlarged by a bibliography.

BEBEL, F. A. Woman and socialism. Translated by Meta L. Stern. (New York: Socialist Literature Company. 1910. Pp. 512. $1.50.)

Woman's advance is to come through socialism.

BERTHOD, A. P. J. Proudhon et la propriété. Un socialisme pour les paysans. (Paris: Giard et Brière. 1910. Pp. xviii, 237. 3 fr.)

An attempt to reconcile Proudhon's earlier declaration, that property is robbery, with his later writings, and to make his reasoning applicable to modern socialism.


Entre deux servitudes. Democratie, socialisme, impérialisme. Les étapes de l'internationale socialiste. Opinions de sociologues. (Paris: Alcan. 1910. Pp. viii, 342. 3.50 fr.) BOURGIN, H. Le socialisme et la concentration industrielle. (Paris: Rivière et Cie. 1911. Pp. 88. 0.75 fr.)

ENGELS, F. Philosophie, économie politique, socialisme (contre Eugène Dühring). (Paris: Giard et Brière. 1911. Pp. xciv, 420. 10 fr.) Translated from the sixth German edition, with notes by Edmond Laskine.

GARNIER, H. T., Tanger, B., BRUHL, L. L'action socialiste, municipale. Preface by EDGAR MILHAUD. (Paris: Rivière et Cie. 1911. 1.25 fr.)

GAUMONT, J. L'etat contre la nation. Le fédéralisme professionnel et l'organisation économique de la société. Preface by H. LaGARDELLE. (Paris: Giard et Brière. 1911. 2.50 fr.) GORJU, C. L'évolution coöpérative en France. Part 2. Exposé économique des méthodes de concentration dans les coöpératives agricoles en France. (Paris: Rivière et Cie. 1911. 1 fr.)

HARLEY, J. H. The new social democracy. A study for the times. (London: King. 1911. 6s.)

Discusses the present situation; treats of the socialism of Anatole France and Proudhon; sees the collapse of collectivism.

KIRKUP, T. A primer of socialism. (London: A. & C. Black. 1911. 1s.)

Author has written "A History of Socialism" now in its third edition.

LAGARDELLE, H. Le socialisme ouvrier. (Paris: Giard et Brière. 1911. 4.50 fr.)

LOHAN, M. Die sozialdemokratische Gefahr. (Berlin: Otto Elsner. 1910. Pp. 92. 1.25 m.)

LORIA, A. Contemporary social problems. A course of lectures delivered at the University of Padua. (London: Sonnenschein. 1911. Pp. 156. 2s. 6d.)

To be reviewed.

MARX, K. A contribution to the critique of political economy. Translated from the second German edition by N. I. Stone. (Chicago: C. H. Kerr & Co. 1911. Pp. 314. $1.00.)

Contains the earliest statement of Marx's theory, although not published until after Das Kapital.

SCHACHNER, R. Die soziale Frage in Australien und Neuseeland. (Jena: Fischer. 1911. 10 m.)

SKELTON, O. D. Socialism; a critical analysis. Hart, Schaffner and Marx prize essays in economics. (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin Co. 1911. Pp. ix, 329. $1.50.)

To be reviewed.

SILBERLING, E. Dictionnaire de sociologie phalanstérienne: guide des oeuvres de C. Fourier. (Paris: Rivière et Cie. 15 fr.)

SPARGO, J. Side lights on contemporary socialism. (New York: B. W. Huebsch. 1911. $1.00.)

Contains essays on Marx, anti-intellectualism in the socialist movement, and the influence of Marx on contemporary socialism. The third was originally published in the American Journal of Sociology.


Industries and Commerce

INVESTIGATION OF EXPORT STATISTICS. Early in April Mr. Durand, the Director of the Census, submitted to the Secretary of Commerce and Labor a report of an investigation made by him regarding the charges preferred by Mr. Francis T. Lowe, of New York, respecting the accuracy of the statistics of exports published by the Bureau of Statistics. The report states that Mr. Lowe has entirely failed to make any case against the accuracy of these statistics.

Mr. Lowe claimed that by wrong methods of classification or otherwise, the export statistics exaggerated the total exports of the country, or at least the exports of manufactured articles, and submitted an affidavit of Charles S. Price, a former employee of the Bureau of Statistics, dated May 3, 1907, in which Price stated that instructions regarding classification had been issued by the Bureau "in which raw materials are described as articles 'wholly or partly manufactured.'" Mr. Lowe asserted that the reported exports of manufactures had steadily climbed since the date of these instructions, notwithstanding that the years from June 30, 1907, to June 30, 1910, were "the three bad years for export, as shown by the returns of England and Germany with the entire world." The Director of the Census states in his report that the change in classification made by the Bureau of Statistics on July 1, 1907, was a perfectly proper change, designed to conform export statistics with the production statistics of the Census. The Bureau gave conspicuous public notice of the change, and reclassified the figures of exports for a number of years back, in order that they might be comparable with the future statistics. The articles falling within each class of exports are conspicuously published month by month. The report also shows that the increase in the reported exports of manufactures since the change in 1907 has been much less rapid than for several years preceding. Moreover, the reported exports of manufactures from the United States since 1907 show almost precisely the same movements as the exports from Great Britain and Germany. The year 1910 was the greatest export year in the history of both England and Germany, as it was in the history of the United States so far as manufactured articles are concerned.

In addition to the general charges made by Mr. Lowe, he submitted a number of inquiries which practically challenged the accuracy of the statistics of exports to certain particular countries, or of particular articles. The report states that Mr. Lowe is misinformed with regard

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