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lustrations of the successes and failures, experienced under actual practice on American and British roads, are presented to acquaint the reader with the relative merits and demerits of each type. Following the consideration of private management is a chapter describing the organization of the state railroads of Prussia, Italy and India.
Another chapter which should be of more than usual interest to the student of railway administration discusses the control of railway operations through statistics. Statistics, to the author, are an indispensable aid to the efficient and economic management of railway property; they are "the clinical thermometer of the industry." The analysis of the function of statistics presented is clear and thorough, and the discussion of the various kinds of statistics prepared daily and the use made of these by the management display more than ordinary familiarity with the subject.
An examination of the literature on railways readily shows that the author is justified in giving this work to the public. Writers on railway matters have as a general rule confined themselves to discussions of engineering or mechanical problems, usually of a technical character, or have given consideration to questions arising from the relation of the railways to the public and the state. Very little of value to the non-technical reader desirous of informing himself respecting the problems of railway organization and management, or to the student considering the railway service as a professional career has been produced. Toward meeting this deficiency the author's work is an important contribution. This work should further prove to be of much value in the study of scientific railway management, demanded by the rapid growth of railway mileage and the development of operating systems as shown by the statistics of railways in the United States.
The book does not undertake to advance any new theory of railway administration but aims to acquaint the reader with some of the methods found in current practice. The quotations and references, as also the subject matter, show a familiarity with the best that has been said or written on railway organization and administration from the manager's point of view. It falls short, however, of being a comprehensive treatise on railway administration as would be inferred from the title. The author has given consideration only to that phase of organization and administration for which the corporation manager is directly responsible. In doing so he has considered but one of a number of subjects
necessarily embraced in a comprehensive discussion of railway administration. The influence exerted by the administrative orders of the government, typical of which are the conference rulings and the accounting orders of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and the service rendered by the voluntary associations of officers and employees, of which there are considerably more than a hundred, and without which no railway could long be administered successfully, are equally important factors and should receive consideration in a treatise on railway administration.
Ann Arbor, Michigan.
CHARLES A. HEISS.
Water Terminals. Part III of the Report of the Commissioner of Corporations on Transportation by Water in the United States. (Washington: Government Printing Office. 1910. Pp. xxi, 436.)
The Commissioner of Corporations names Mr. Burr J. Ramage, one of his assistants, as "especially contributing" to this report on Water Terminals. The volume is chiefly given over to descriptions of the physical, legal and economic characteristics of the principal American ports. The mass of detailed information here collected should prove of great value, if properly utilized by municipal officers and by business men's associations throughout the country in improving their local conditions. The terminals of New Orleans and of San Francisco are praised for their "high degree of public ownership, control, efficiency and equipment”; while serious faults in most of the other ports, especially on the Atlantic Coast, are pointed out. The data presented are used as the basis for five general conclusions which are worth restating and considering.
First, that terminals are as important in an efficient transportation system as channels. Obvious though this statement may seem, its truth seems to be appreciated by surprisingly few people. Witness, for instance, the millions lost by the efforts of the Wabash management to force an entrance into Pittsburg, only to find that without proper terminals it was impossible to secure Pittsburg traffic. Again, the Interstate Commerce Commission in all its work since 1887 has almost ignored switching rates and practices of great importance. The whole subject of terminal facilities and charges, on railroads as well as on water lines, calls for careful investigation and thought.
Second, that harbors should be better organized, especially by a separation of commercial, or through, from industrial, or local, traffic. Many practical applications are pointed out as, for instance, that several cities have outer harbors which should be utilized for commercial traffic, leaving the frontage of the inner harbors free for industrial traffic. Other harbors, including New York, are defective in that they do not possess adequate transshipping equipment.
The third conclusion is that great influence (by implication, undue influence) over water terminals is exercised by railroad companies. This influence results in part from direct ownership or lease of terminal real estate; in part from ownership of elevators, lighters, belt lines and other essential terminal facilities; in part from rights of way along water frontage which interfere with its development. The fourth conclusion, closely related to the third, is to the effect that rail and water systems, instead of being "linked up" are operated at cross purposes. The inference that the railroads have throttled water transportation is scarcely justified. Water transportation, except of bulk freight, is generally cumbersome and expensive as compared with rail transportation. Railroad officials should not be blamed for the decline of water traffic in ordinary merchandise; nor can shippers reasonably be blamed, even by the fervent advocates of waterways, for preferring to send their freight by quicker, more convenient and cheaper routes.
The fifth conclusion is that there is striking lack of coöperation between federal and local authorities in harbor development. The federal government provides channels; the state or city government provides terminals. In some cases there appears to be no connection whatever between the two lines of development.
This volume is an excellent example of a pains-taking governmental investigation which brings to light important and significant facts. There is a touch of railroad-baiting here and there; but, as a whole, the report is impartial and illuminating. WILLIAM H. LOUGH.
New York University.
ARNOLD, B. J. Report on the Pittsburgh transportation problem. (Pittsburgh. 1910. Pp. ix, 202.)
To be reviewed.
BRANDEIS, L. D. Scientific management and the railroads. Part of a brief submitted to the Interstate Commerce Commission. (New York: The Engineering Magazine. 1911. Pp. 92. $1.50.) BROWN, W. C. Freight rates and railway conditions; addresses and correspondence. (New York: W. C. Brown. 1911. Pp. 232.)
CLARK, A. H. The clipper ship era, 1843-1869. (New York: Putnam. 1911.)
COLSON, C. and MARLIO, L. Chemins de fer et voies navigables. (Paris: Dunod et Pinat. 1911. Pp. 108. 4.50 fr.)
Presented at the Eighth International Congress of Railways; inIcludes the discussion and votes.
GODFERNAUX, R. Les chemins de fer coloniaux français.
HEMMEON, J. C. The history of the organization and development of the British post office. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 1911. $2.00.)
HOLCOMBE, A. N. Public ownership of telephones on the continent of Europe. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 1911. Pp. xx, 482. $2.00.)
To be reviewed.
KIRKMAN, M. M. Science of railways. Rev. ed. Vol. II, Cars, their construction, handling and supervision. (Chicago: C. Phillips Company. 1911. Pp. viii, 435; 279. il. forms, diagrs. $7.50.) MONKSWELL, LORD. French railways. (London: Smith Elder & Co. 1911. Pp. xii, 114. 3s. 6d.)
MUNDY, F. W. comp. and ed. The earning power of railroads. (New York: Moody's Mag. 1911. Pp. 492. $2.50.)
ROCHLEAU, W. F. Great American industries. Book 4. Transportation. Home and school series for young folks. (Chicago: Flanagan. 1910. Pp. 263. 60c.)
ROTTE, C. Les chemins de fer et tramways des colonies, historique, organisation administrative et financière. (Paris: Larose et Tenin. 1911. 6 fr.)
STRIGL, A. B. von. Die österreichischen Staatsbahnen seit dem Bestande des Eisenbahnministerium 1896-1908., (Vienna: Hof-u. Staatsdruckerei. 1910. Pp. vi, 107. 2 m.)
Holland Land Company and canal construction in western New York. (Buffalo: Buffalo Historical Society. 1911. Pp. xiv, 496. il. maps, pors. $5.00.)
Report of royal commission on postal services of the commonwealth. (Australia. 1910. 4s. 6d.)
Deals with management, finance, extensions in country districts and sparsely populated parts.
Trade, Commerce, and Commercial Crises
The Great Illusion:
A Study of the Relation of Military Power in Nations to their Economic and Social Advantage. By NORMAN ANGELL. (New York: G. P. Putnam's sons. 1910. Pp. xvi, 388. $1.50.)
This work is a revised version of a pamphlet published the previous year entitled Europe's Optical Illusion. The new edition appeared simultaneously in eleven countries and ten different languages, and has attracted considerable attention. The main thesis is that "political and military power is economically futile.” Thus it is argued that armies and navies cannot capture or destroy the trade of rivals, because trade depends on natural resources and ability to utilize them. It is also contended that the British colonies are a burden rather than an advantage, consequently no other nation could gain, nor could England lose, by their conquest. It is further maintained that no nation can increase its wealth by increasing its territory, because the land will still be owned by its inhabitants. Finally it is asserted that the conquerer cannot confiscate the wealth of a conquered territory, because such a blow to credit would bring ruin upon the conquerer no less than the conquered. This is indeed the point on which the author lays chief stress. Just as Mr. Bloch argued (shortly before the Russo-Japanese war) that high power guns and big armies had rendered war forever impossible, so Mr. Angell maintains that "the telegraph and the bank have rendered military force economically futile."
As a peace polemic, the work has considerable merit. It deals effectively with various crudities of thought inherent in popular thinking and writing on the subject. It brings out the tendency in modern society to stratify horizontally, on a class basis, rather than vertically, on a national basis. It points out that for purposes of struggle with physical environment, the whole human race, or at least that portion of it entering into foreign commerce, may be regarded as a single coöperative organization. Finally it is written in a vigorous, sweeping style, which makes it attractive reading.
As a serious economic argument, however, the work is less successful. There are numerous errors of fact and of language, not vital in themselves but indicative of lack of scholarship, and likewise not a few logical fallacies. Thus it is asserted that nothing