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raphy and of agricultural economics. On the other hand it seems to show traces of haste, as it contains not a few inaccuracies both of fact and expression; and the ideas advanced appear to bear no relation to any consistent body of economic doctrine. This is noticeable in the discussion of the sugar duties (pp. 53, 80, 143, 220, etc.); the "alarming" emigration from Great Britain (p. 152); the assumed benefit to American laborers if all our sugar were provided in this country (p. 129); and especially the “shortage of labor" which is alleged to exist in cane-growing countries, even in those so densely populated that famine is a normal condition. The incongruity of such complaints in such circumstances ought to suggest the necessity of careful analysis.

The little book by Martineau is concerned chiefly with the technology of sugar manufacture. It also gives a good account of the development and present status of the sugar bounties. Incidentally it is a plea for more "paternal government" after the manner of Germany and Joseph Chamberlain.

The Canadian Bulletin on beet sugar is based on hearings before the tariff committee. It deals mostly with the growing of beets, which is shown to be highly profitable; while the manufacture of beet sugar encounters difficulties owing to the short


University of Minnesota.



BEADLE, C. and STEVENS, H. P. Rubber production and utilization of the raw product. (London: Pitman. Pp. x, 182. 1s. 6d.) BIELEFELDT, K. Das Eindringen des Kapitalismus in die Landwirtschaft unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Provinz Sachsen und der angrenzenden Gebiete. (Berlin: Puttkammer und Mühlbrecht. 1911. Pp. x, 158.)

GOLDSCHMITT. Die deutsche Seefischerei in der Gegenwart und die Mittel zu ihrer Hebung. (Berlin: C. Heymann. 1911. Pp. 263. 7 m.)

To be reviewed.

GÖRMANDT, R. Der Landarbeiter mit eigener Wirtschaft in Nordwestund Ostdeutschland. (Berlin: Emil Ebering. 1910. Pp. 208. 5.50 m.)

MCFARLAND, R. A history of the New England fisheries. (New York: Appleton. 1911. Pp. 457, maps. $2.00.)

To be reviewed.

PEARSON, H. C. The rubber company of the Amazon; a detailed description of the great rubber industry of the Amazon Valley. (New York: India Rubber World. 1911. Pp. x, 228. $3.50.) RUMKER, K. V and E. v TSCHERMAK. Landwirtschaftliche Studien in Nordamerika mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Pflanzenzüchtung. (Berlin: Paul Parey. 1910. Pp. xvi, 151. 5 m.) To be reviewed.

RUTTER, W. P. Wheat-growing in Canada, the United States, and the Argentine. (London: A. & C. Black. 1910. 32 ill. 3s. 6d.) Discusses cost of production, price, storage, transportation and marketing.

TURNOR, C. Land problems and national welfare. With an introduction by the Right Hon. Viscount Milner. (New York: John Lane. 1911. Pp. xvii, 344. $2.50.)

To be reviewed.

WIDTSOE, J. A. Dry-farming. A system of agriculture for countries under a low rainfall. (New York: Macmillan. 1911. Pp xxii, 445. $1.50.)

Contains eight pages of bibliography.

ZUNO, N. Latifondo e latifondismo: studio di economia rurale. (Palermo: O. Fiorenza. 1911. Pp. 229. 1.5 1.)

Review of the coal trade in 1910. (London: The Colliery Guardian Co. 1911. Pp. xvi, 151.)

Royal commission on the land transfer acts. Second and final report. (London: King. 1911. 6d.)

Manufacturing Industries


BROWNE, E. A. Sugar. (London: A. & C. Black. 1910. 1s. 6d.) GEITMANN, H. Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der deutschen Gaswerke. (Munich: R. Oldenbourg. 1910. Pp. iv, 141. 4 m.) HEYDE, L. Die volkswirtschaftliche Bedeutung der technischen Enwicklung in der deutschen Zigarren-und Zigaretten-Industrie. (Stuttgart: F. Enke. 1910. Pp. x, 216. 7.6 m.)

WAHL, R. and HENIUS, M. Brauereibetrieb in den Vereinigten Staaten von Nord Amerika. (Chicago: Wahl-Henius. 1910. Pp. 274. $3.00.)

Transportation and Communication

Railroad Traffic and Rates. By EMORY R. JOHNSON and Grover G. HUEBNER. (New York: D. Appleton and Company. 1911. Pp. xvi, 524; x, 448. $5.)

In these two substantial volumes, Professor Johnson, with the

aid of his younger colleague, Dr. Huebner, presents a technical survey of the freight and passenger traffic departments of the American railway. The authors have been fortunate in securing the coöperation of a large number of railway officials, by one or other of whom most of the chapters were read before the book was sent to press.


Volume I is introduced by a well-prepared general analysis of the railway traffic of the United States, and to the general student of economics, as apart from the railway specialist, this will probably prove to be the most stimulating part of the book. The third of the three chapters of this section (Part I) suffers somewhat, perhaps, from lack of adequate explanation. For instance, no elucidation is given of the meaning of "outside operations,' or of the statistical advantage arising from the separation of the items included thereunder from the regular revenues and expenditures. With the exception of the sixty-five pages devoted to the above analysis, this first volume devotes itself to the consideration of freight traffic matters. The related work of the accounting and operating departments is referred to in two brief chapters, both of which serve a useful purpose, though the "operating" chapter fails to include several points of interest that had a legitimate claim to attention.

The chapter on the organization of the freight traffic department is good, so far as it goes, but it does not go far enough. Substantially, it is limited to the study of two roads. More could have been written, with advantage, upon the differentiation of duties of traffic officials, and greater emphasis laid upon the adaptation of the traffic organization to the economic environment. So, too, a larger amount of space might have been given to the exposition of the current working methods of the freight traffic associations. There is an excellent, though brief, account of the purpose and methods of the industrial department. In the section on agricultural education, reference might appropriately have been made to the experimental farms established by some railways.

The chapters dealing with car-service and efficiency, with private cars and with classification and rates, constituting well over half the volume, are of great interest. A clear statement of the causes of car shortage is given, and the effect of the seasonal variations of traffic, intensified by the business methods of dealers and producers, is duly emphasized. Car-pooling is dismissed too briefly: further discussion of its practicability and closer analysis

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In the section on freight classification and rates, the several rate systems, with the basic principles underlying them, are carefully described. The chapter on rate-making in southern territory and Texas would have been made easier for the student by the employment of charts such as are made use of in most of the other rate chapters, and there are a few places where the description could have been improved, but, taken as a whole, we have here easily the most complete and the most capable exposition of freight rate relations in the United States that has yet appeared.

Professor Ripley's recent articles on "Rate-Making Practice" seem to have exercised no small influence upon the trend of our authors' rate theory, with the result that Professor Johnson's caution, as exemplified in his text-book on American Railway Transportation, has, since July, 1908 (the date of the preface to the second revised edition), been stimulated into boldness. "In general," he now asserts, "distance must be the prime factor in fixing rates." In the discussion of the bases of railway charges, one must be thankful to the authors for their timely differentiation of the various meanings in which the phrase "cost of service" is used, as this has been a point of confusion. The bias towards costof-service rate-making may be excusable in view of its growing popularity, but the arguments of the authors in favor of the same seem marked, to a considerable degree, by inconclusiveness. Ask how measurement of cost of service is to help towards the determination of a reasonable rate, and the Sybilline response comes, "It is the duty of the makers of rates to adjust their charges somewhat with reference to cost of service as well as with regard to the ability of the shipper to pay." If the policy of making rates according to what the traffic will bear "needs to be held in check more or less by giving consideration, when practicable, to the cost of the service," it would be to the advantage of the readers of the book to have some guidance as to the limits of this "more or less" and as to the occasions when this practicability is likely to be present. Likewise, when the authors urge that the public "may rightly insist that there shall be some fair relation between the railway's expenses and its income," one feels the lack of any real guidance as to the principles which should be employed in coming to a decision as to the nature of the "fair relation."

The same incompleteness of finish, shall we call it, marks the discussion of the effect of capitalization upon rates.

The second volume deals with the passenger service, special emphasis being laid upon classification and fares, and the express and mail services. As in the first volume, the matter is presented with general accuracy and admirable clearness. The profusion of "forms," in both volumes, is a feature which will much commend itself to the railway student. A welcome innovation is the chapter on the Pullman Company. The chapters on the railway mail and express services, and on interurban railway competition are good, as one would expect from the treatment of these subjects in Professor Johnson's earlier books. The text of the MannElkins Act is reproduced in an appendix, as also that of the Reno Rate decision. An excellent index completes the volume.

This work should command the attention of the student of railway practice. The authors are to be congratulated upon having produced, in a field of business practice so full of pitfalls to the unwary, a book as accurate as it is readable.

The University of Illinois.

Railway Administration.


By RAY MORRIS, Managing Editor, "Railway Age Gazette." (New York: D. Appleton and Company. 1910. Pp. 309.)

This volume on railway administration, using the author's words, is intended "to give to the non-technical reader the manager's point of view toward the problems of actual railroad administration in this country, with a glance at certain comparative conditions in other countries." The problems treated are principally those of organization, and the aim is to show how the working forces of a railway corporation are organized in order to use to the best advantage the ability and skill of the several departments of the industry.

The author first considers the problem of promotion or initial organization, and then development for the purpose of operation. Diagrams of typical small and large roads illustrate the several types of organization, such as the divisional, departmental, and the line and staff plan, and show more forcibly than is possible in the text, the manner in which responsibility is spread over the organization. The several types of organization are explained and contrasted, the theory underlying each discussed, and enough il

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