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son with the most densely populated countries of Europe, Belgium, for instance, this number (353 persons to the square mile) is insignificant, Japan being capable of containing a much larger population." It is statistically untrue that "Japan increases every year in a manner unknown in Europe, even in Germany and Russia." The death-rate in Japan is 20 per 1000, the birthrate 33+, natural annual increase 1 1/3 per cent.

The translation leaves something to be desired. We meet with "quantities of villages," "The Japanese do not surrender themselves to this class of fishing," "Shadow of Parliamentarism" for "appearance of Parliamentarism." Nevertheless, in addition to presenting quantities of minute information (e g. describing six varieties of Japanese mushrooms, 30 varieties of useful woods, and 19 kinds of lacquer), the author abounds in sound and impartial judgments. His appraisal of Japanese family life, military spirit, literacy, commercial morality, government, industrial prospects, and trade future tally with the conclusions of an independent observer.

The University of Wisconsin.


Wirtschaftsstudien aus Südamerika, speziell über Chile. By RuDOLF DUNKER. (Leipzig: Duncker and Humblot. 1910.

Pp. 200.)

This monograph of two hundred pages devoted chiefly to the financial, banking and monetary history and conditions of Chili, is based upon four years of experience in connection with banking establishments in that country. The author gives us, with a wealth of technical detail, the history of Chilean industry since 1904, including a full account of the speculations and paper money issues of the boom period of 1905-1907, and ending in the crisis of 1907. In the history of the fluctuations of foreign exchange during this period, ample explanation is given why all foreign trade is a highly speculative proposition.

A section is devoted to the organization of the saltpeter market, including an explanation of the contracts between producers and dealers, an account of various combinations, and a statement of the financial aid rendered the industry by the government. Public finance is interestingly dealt with, and the data offered afford a mine of illustration for university classes studying that subject. Chili has a chronic deficit in her budget, which is as chronically

covered by the issue of paper money. The country is a persistent borrower abroad, offering as security the income from saltpeter taxes and from export and import duties. The borrowings are ostensibly for public works, but much of the money never finds its equivalent in completed projects. It is not surprising, therefore, that a large program of future projects still remains, on which to justify future loans.

University of Michigan.


Grundriss der allgemeinen Wirtschafts-und Verkehrsgeographie. By JOSEF STOISER. (Vienna and Leipzig: Karl Fromme. 1910. Pp. vi, 95.)

This little volume can hardly be regarded as a new treatise covering the whole field of economic or commercial geography; rather it is merely an outline of what the author conceives to be the subject-matter of a study which for some time has been wellrecognized in the leading countries of Europe. Somewhat more than one-half of the book is first given over to a consideration of such topics as usually are found in works on physical geography. Man is then introduced as the agent in the utilization of the world's natural resources of the vegetable, animal and mineral kingdoms. The evolution of exchange, the organization of trade, the plant which has been developed to facilitate the distribution of commodities, and a sketch of the world's trade are among the later matters considered. The book is largely free from statistical tables and contains much in the line of elaboration of principles. The author is a professor in the Handelsakademie of Vienna.


Yale University.

Das Moselland und die westdeutsche Eisenindustrie. I. By MAX SERING and others. II. By HERMAN SCHUMACHER. (Leipzig: Duncker und Humblot. 1910. Pp. 204, 153. 4 and 3 m.)

These volumes preserve the lectures of a Studienreise into the Moselle region conducted in the spring of 1910 under the auspices of the Berlin Vereinigung für staatswissenschaftliche Fortbildung. The eight lectures of the first volume, by Professor Sering and others, constitute a Kulturgeschichte of the region in general and of the cities of Treves and Metz in particular. Em

phasis of the industrial phase of the region's history is not conspicuous. The second volume, by Professor Schümacher, is a study of the iron industry in the Moselle valley. Problems which have arisen with the technical development of the industry are considered and the author concludes that future development must come by bringing the industry into closer connection with the iron and coal industries of neighboring regions. How this is to be accomplished is indicated by the subtitle of the volume, "The Canalization of the Moselle." By canalizing the Moselle and its southern tributary, the Saar, the Saar coal, the Moselle iron and the Ruhr coal and iron resources can, because of cheaper transportation, be brought more easily together; the three now relatively isolated regions would become one great West German industrial region.

Tuck School, Dartmouth College.



ANTHOUARD, BARON. D' Le progrès brésilien. La participation de la France. (Paris Plon-Nourrit et Cie. 1911. Pp. xi, 435. 10 fr.) A social, economic, and financial study.


Das russische Reich in Europa und Asien. Ein Handbuch über seine wirtschaftlichen Verhältnisse. (Berlin: Verlag für Borsen-und Finanzliteratur. 1910. Pp. viii, 440. 8 m.)

BRUNHES, J. La géographie humaine. (Paris: Alcan. 1911. Pp. iv, 844. 20 fr.)

The author, professor of geography at the Universities of Fribourg and Lausanne, discusses the distribution of population as influenced by nature and material forces. There are more than 200 illustrations and maps.

BRY, M. J. Les vigneries de Provence. Aperçu de leur histoire jusqu'à le fin du xvi siècle, leur organisation et leur rôle aux xvii° et xviii siècles. (Paris: A. Picard et Cie. 1900. 10 fr.) DENNIS, P. Brazil. Translated by Bernard Miall. Scribner. 1911. $3.00.)

Gives special consideration to economic conditions.

(New York:

FARGION, G. La vita industriale e finanziaria dal 1904 al 1908. (Turin: 1910. Pp. 98. 3 1.)

GALLION, W. Der Ursprung der Zünfte in Paris. (Berlin: Dr. Walther Rothschild. 1910. Pp. vii, 118. 4.20 m.)

Belongs to the series Abhandlungen zur mittleren und neueren Geschichte, No. 24.

GIESECKE, A. A. American commercial legislation before 1789. Publications of the University of Pennsylvania; series in political economy and public law. (New York: Appleton. (New York: Appleton. 1910. Pp. 167.) To be reviewed.

HOLLENBACH, F. M. Schweden, seine wirtschaftliche Entwickelung und sein Handel mit Deutschland. (Berlin: Liebheit & Thiesen. 1910. Pp. 62. 1.20 m.)

Published by a committee to promote the development of trade between Sweden and Germany.

HUTCHINS, B. L. and HARRISON, A. A history of factory legislation. Second ed. rev., with a new chapter. (London: King. 1910. Pp. 314. 6s.)

First edition was published in 1903. In the preface by Mr. Webb, emphasis is laid upon the significance of the Trade Boards Act of 1907.

JUNGE, F. E. Americanische Wirtschaftspolitik. Ihre ökonomischen Grundlagen, ihre sozialen Wirkungen und ihre Lehren für die deutsche Volkswirtschaft. (Berlin: J. Springer. 1910. Pp. 301. 7m.) To be reviewed.

KOWALEWSKY, M. Die ökonomische Entwicklung Europas bis zum Beginn der kapitalistischen Wirtschaftsform. (Berlin: R. L. Prager. 1911. Pp. vii, 458. 8.50 m.)

Published in the series Bibliothek der Volkswirtschaftslehre und Gesellschaftswissenschaft.

LEVASSEUR, E. Histoire du commerce de la France.

Part I. Avant

1789. (Paris: A. Rousseau. 1911. Pp. 611. 12.50 fr.)

The first systematic history of the commerce of France, for the work of Pigeonneau which covered the subject down to the seventeenth century was stopped by the death of the author. The second volume is nearly completed.


Rivière et Cie.

L'évolution industrielle de la Belgique. (Paris: 1910. Pp. 450. 7.50 fr.)

LINCKE, B. Die schweizerische Maschinenindustrie und ihre Entwicklung in wirtschaftlichen Beziehung. (Frauenfeld: Huber & Co. 1911. Pp. vii, 218. 4.50 m.)

MANES, A. Politisches und Wirtschaftliches aus Australasien. (Berlin: Simion. 1910. Pp. 32. 1 m.)

MARCHANT, J. R. V. Commercial history; an introductory treatise for the use of advanced classes in schools. Pitman's commercial series. (New York: Pitman. 1911. Pp. 272, il. pls. maps. $1.00.) MURRAY, A. E. A history of the commercial and financial relations between England and Ireland. From the period of the Restoration. With a preface by Professor W. A. S. Hewins. (London: King.

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SOMBART, W. Die Juden und das Wirtschaftsleben. (Leipzig: Duncker und Humblot. 1911. Pp. xxvi, 476. 9 m.)

TARLE, E. L'industrie dans les campagnes en France à la fin de l'ancien régime. (Paris: E. Cornély et Cie. 1911. Pp. 87. 3.25 fr.) TAYLOR, G.

Australia in its physiographic and economic aspects. (New York: Oxford University Press. 1911. Pp. 256. 90 c.) Author was formerly lecturer in economic geography in the University of Sidney. The present work is an introduction to the study of the commercial geography of Australia.

Agriculture, Mining, Forestry, and Fisheries

England's Foundation: Agriculture and the State. Reprinted with additions from "The Hereford Times." By J. SAXON MILLS. With a preface by the EARL OF DENBIGH. (London: King. 1911. Pp. 93. 1s.)

This is a plea for a return to the "persistent and beneficent policy of state supervision" of agriculture, which is alleged to have existed in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the reasons assigned being the evils of city life and the military danger of dependence on over-sea food supplies. The remedy proposed is a bounty on domestic wheat, to be paid out of a tax on imported (even on colonial) wheat, so adjusted that the Liverpool price shall never fall below 40 shillings the quarter. The author appears wholly unfamiliar with the principles of diminishing returns and economic rent.

E. V. D. R.


York: Appleton. 1910. Pp. 238.)
Sugar, Cane and Beet. An Object Lesson. By GEORGE Mar-
TINEAU. C. B. Pitman's Common Commodities of Commerce.
(London: Pitman. Pp. ix, 149.)

The Beet Sugar Industry. Bulletin IX, Census and Statistics. (Ottawa. 1909. Pp. 75.)

The work by Professor Surface discusses the sources and kinds of sugar, the history of the sugar industry, the causes controlling the localization of cane and beet growing, the processes of manufacture, the uses of by-products and the organization of the sugar trade. It has the distinct merit of applying the principle of competitive crops to the localization of cane and beet growing, and ought consequently to interest students of economic geog

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