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3. Studies shall be arranged and taught so that the student is incited to productive activity at every stage of his training. He sets his problems of construction and solves them himself through drawing, both mechanical and free-hand, through mathematics, and natural science. His English, history, and commercial geography enable him to see and to formulate clearly the relation of what he is now doing to the various activities of other


Upon the basis of extended experience and knowledge Mr. Dean applies these fundamental conceptions to the varied conditions that now obtain in the industrial world. The discussions are informal, but they throw light into the dark places. The book is on the whole the most useful one that has appeared on this subject.

Dr. Snedden's monograph is devoted to the statement of the vocational problem in its manifold aspects, and is perhaps the clearest exposition of fundamental conceptions that we have. That he holds substantially the same view of pure vs. applied science as that held by Mr. Dean is seen from the following quotation (p. 35): "It is probably psychologically true that, for the average person, the study of these applied arts and sciences, quite apart from and anterior to any participation in the productive processes [Query, would they in such case be really applied?], is futile and unproductive so far as vocational efficiency is concerned. Nothing can be more certain, however, than that the study of these same subjects, in close interrelation with the productive processes, tends to expand rapidly the capacity of the worker.". The relative futility of manual training for vocational efficiency is pointed out on pp. 42 and 43. Many other problems, such as those of administration and support, are also discussed. The whole forms a well-nigh indispensable hand-book of clear-cut distinctions.

Professor Gillette's volume is more general, covering a wider range of subjects. Its main design is apparently to convince the reader that there is a problem of vocational education; that it must be solved, if not wisely, at least in some way, even if old conceptions must be pushed to the wall. The first part is devoted to The Educational Renaissance (the vocational movement); the second part is upon The Social Demands on Education (indi

vidualism, democracy, economics, pathology, social vs. other ends, religion and the State); while Part III discusses methods of socialization.

Professor Woolman's little volume is an excellent account of a highly specialized trade school for girls in New York City. It covers Organization and Work, Problems, Equipment and Support, and outlines of department activities.


Cornell University.

Sociology and Modern Social Problems. By CHARLES E. ELLWOOD. (New York: American Book Co. 1910. Pp. 331.) There is crying need for a good college text on modern social problems, like population, marriage and divorce, immigration, city life, pauperism, etc., but Professor Ellwood has not satisfied the want. He has addressed himself rather to teachers' reading circles and "institutions where but a short time can be given to the subject," with a resultant superficiality that is intensified by his attempt to treat within very restricted limits a large number of subjects. Such a book must of course be judged in the light of its purpose; in speaking of a certain superficiality we do not mean condemnation by any means, for it may well be that certain classes of readers can profit best by an extensive survey rather than by intensive treatment of social problems. We cannot help thinking however that the author has perhaps preferred to run the risk of talking down to his audience than to shoot over their heads; and the latter is on the whole the lesser evil.

The first third of the book is devoted to the family in its historical and ethical aspects, and to divorce. This matter, with one exception-the author's attitude on economic interpretation— will have only secondary interest for the economist; but we may remark in passing that the treatment will hardly appeal to the anthropologist as well-balanced. Professor Ellwood accepts without question Westermarck's conclusion that the primitive family was monogamous, and utterly ignores the evidence brought forth by Spencer and Gillen and Frazer, which cuts the ground almost entirely from under Westermarck. So much space is given to the family that the other problems get comparatively inadequate treatment. The chapters on city life, immigration, and the negro suffer most. The attack here is statistical rather than historical

and does not seem so successful as the treatment of pauperism and crime, population, and divorce, though the position taken concerning the relation of crime and pauperism to heredity is open to question. The author's biology, like that of so many social writers, is in certain respects somewhat behindhand, even though he does insist that biology has priority over economics in social interpretation, and that "there is scarcely any sanity in a sociology without the biological point of view." (p. 50.)

The chapter on population contains an excellent discussion of the influences determining the growth of population. It is to be regretted that the author could not have been more open mindedly cordial toward Malthus, and set forth the real significance of the law of diminishing returns which is barely mentioned. Neglect of this fundamental fact has vitiated more than one attempt to cast Malthus into oblivion, but while it remains a fact, there will be a bedrock of truth in the Malthusian teaching which no amount of sociological revision or expurgation can overthrow. Many questionable assertions are made with regard to birth- and death-rates, and no hint is given the unwary reader that the crude rates do not tell the whole truth. It certainly is open to question whether "an excessively low birth-rate [What is excessive?] is a sign of physical and probably moral degeneracy” (p. 142). It seems, too, somewhat sensational to say that the native white stock threatens to become extinct; at least it neglects to remember the extreme inadequacy of our birth statistics. It is also news to us that "from a sociological point of view the childless marriage is a failure" (p.54). Certain assertions about the labor of women outside the home (p. 59), and original differences of character in the sexes (pp. 62-3) are also open to question.

To the economist, however, the point of greatest interest in the whole book will be the author's attitude on the economic interpretation of history. Professor Ellwood in every chapter waves a red flag in the fields where the economists are wont to browse. He loses no opportunity to declare the economic element in society subordinate to the biological and psychological factors. Indeed by a feat of deductive logic, economics is made the tail to the social psychology kite! Needless to say, all this gives to many passages a controversial tone that is out of place in an elementary text. We do not know that anyone is flouting the economic interpretation of society so brazenly that the sociologist need stand on the housetops crying "thief! thief!" Despite his contempt for economic

interpretation, it is interesting to note the constant use the author makes of it—a rather ungrateful proceeding on his part we think. A. B. WOLfe.

Oberlin College.

Child Problems. By GEORGE B. MANGOLD, Associate Director, St. Louis School of Social Economy. Citizens' Library of Economics, Politics and Sociology. (New York: The Macmillan Company. 1910. Pp. 381. $1.25.)

The author's purpose is to give "a general view of the principal social child problems of to-day," adapted to "the use of the student engaged in college or university work, and also to the general reader who wishes to cultivate this important field of social endeavor." The text of the whole is society's obligation to provide children with the opportunities necessary for social and economic efficiency. As the principal problems encountered in meeting that obligation, Dr. Mangold treats of infant and child mortality, recent aspects of educational reform, child labor, the delinquent child, and the dependent and neglected child. Playground and school are both considered as essential factors in educational reform. All the topics are presented entirely with reference to the United States.

The book makes no fresh contribution either to information or insight in its field, being an extremely condensed summary of established facts and principles, presented in text book manner. Its service consists in reviewing this whole series of questions within brief compass, thus affording students a plan for the study of much scattered material and a reminder of the many-sidedness of the whole social child problem. A selected classified bibliography adds to its usefulness for this purpose. The student rather than the general reader will find the book adapted to his use; sought by the latter, or thrust upon him, as an introduction to its field, it will gratify an active curiosity but is less likely to awaken interest.

Desirable as such a survey may be, it is unfortunate that it should be published so little in advance of several significant reports. The federal census of 1910, the reports of the Immigration Commission and the Commission on the Employment of Women and Children in the United States, and the volumes of the Russell Sage Foundation on Juvenile Delinquency should afford much added knowledge of conditions underlying these problems and

of experience in their attempted solution. Dr. Mangold's survey is likely to need revision in a comparatively short time if it is to remain what it is at present, a fair summary of the best available material on the topics treated.

Vassar College.


Vocations for the Trained Woman: Opportunities other than Teaching. Introductory Papers, edited by AGNES F. PERKINS. (Boston: Women's Educational and Industrial Union. 1910. Pp. vi, 296.)

Miss Perkins of Wellesley College, has brought together a collection of papers by specialists setting forth the type of work required, the type of ability which argurs success, the training necessary, the salaries usually paid, and the outlook in the professions or business other than teaching, for the trained woman. These articles present evidence in support of conclusions, notably "Women as Farmers," by K. C. Livermore, and "College Girls in Department Stores," by Gertrude L. Marvin. Of service is the setting forth of opportunities in social and economic service classified under "Civic" and "Social" service. The sections devoted to Domestic Science and Arts present distinctly "a number of business occupations that are both remunerative and satisfying to the individual." The "Special Forms of Teaching" suggests opportunities for a combination of social work and teaching which are very much in demand. This volume is to be followed by studies in agriculture and other lines by fellows of the Research Department.

Insurance and Pensions

Workingmen's Insurance in Europe. By LEE K. FRANKEL and MILES M. DAWSON, With the Coöperation of LOUIS I. DUBLIN. Russell Sage Foundation. (New York: Charities Publication Committee. 1910. Pp. xviii, 477. $2.50.)

Nowhere with such brevity of detail can one inform himself upon this topic as in this admirable volume. The main purpose of the study is to show the various methods of operation in the different European countries for the protection of laborers and their dependents from the financial consequences of such misfortunes


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