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quite as important as the coöperation of the ordinary police for the successful carrying-out of the laws relating to the employment of children. "The law of 1903 is in a sense their (the teachers') work, and they have to some extent made it also their work to see that it is enforced."
Discussions of other related subjects occur throughout the report, such as the attempts made in different countries to interest the working-men in the enforcement of the child labor laws, the extent to which children are employed in home industries, the conditions under which they work in small shops in comparison with large establishments, the regulation and present extent of apprenticeship, and the cruel exploitation in France of the children in orphanages and other religious and charitable institutions.
Although Dr. Veditz is extremely careful to cite the authorities for his most important statements, the source of his tables is very rarely given. While in the great majority of cases these can be inferred, there would seem to be no good reason for not plainly indicating the source in every instance. The fact that the report is in the main a setting forth of the facts with very little critical discussion of the sources of information, or comparisons between conditions in different countries, or between Europe and America and England is no doubt due to its official character. Many readers would be greatly assisted if more attention had been given to summarizing the material presented. In the section dealing with Austria, the different states are discussed separately and no attempt is made to give the reader a picture of the whole. The volume concludes abruptly with the account of Switzerland, although the reader again would have been grateful for a final or concluding chapter dealing briefly with the European situation as a whole and any possible bearings it may have upon our own.
Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy.
The Trade Union Label. By ERNEST L. SPEDDEN. Johns Hopkins University Studies; Historical and Political Science. Series XXVII, No. 2. (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press. 1910. Pp. 97.)
Historically considered three fairly distinct stages in the use of the label are noted. The introduction of the "stamp" or white
label by the cigar makers of San Francisco in 1875 marks its beginning, and the early history of the label in that organization constitutes the first period of the movement. The second stage is intimately associated with the activities of the Knights of Labor, which organization "had, from the outset, exalted the boycott above the strike as a weapon." The strength of the Knights, and their quickness to perceive the possibilities of the label, contributed much to its wider use during this stage. Up to this time the desire for the label was prompted by various motives-prevention of immigration, tenement house and prison labor, low wages and machine made products; and the appeal was made chiefly to the public, but with little success. The final period of its history began about 1890 when the label became a general fixed policy of trade unionism, and when the appeal was made more effectively to unionists instead of to the public. More than one half of the unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor have adopted labels. They constitute about fortyseven per cent of the membership of that body.
The form of the label, a mark on the product, a shop card, or a button, depends upon the nature of the article considered; attempts to establish a uniform design for all unions have failed. The administration of the label, originally exercised by the locals, has been transferred to the national bodies, especially in those trades where the label is considered important. The conditions imposed upon the users of the label vary in different trades, and even in locals of the same trade. The restriction of the label to union shops is, however, universal. "The label stands provisionally, not for any particular set of conditions, but for those conditions which the unions of each trade have found it possible and desirable to establish." In general these conditions concern wages, hours of labor, and sanitation.
The success of the label as an instrument, depends upon the demand for it. This is greatest upon goods purchased by unionists, by men than by women, in cases where "unionists know whether the unionist purchasing is buying union or non-union goods;" and finally, where the goods are bought at frequent intervals. The legal status of the label is considered in the concluding chapter. Whether "the union could obtain a proprietary interest in the label as a merchant could in goods owned or sold by him," was subject to much dispute, but, on the whole, the decisions were favorable to the unions; however, to secure ample
protection, new legislation was needed, which, by 1908, was obtained in forty-nine states and territories.
The author has presented much fresh material which is well arranged under striking chapter titles. The style is satisfying. While certain facts as to the use of the label in many different trades are given, still an intensive study of actual conditions was made in comparatively few cases. But since a similar statement might be made concerning such a monumental study as that of the Webbs, it is evident that within the limits set for the present monograph, very much additional was not possible. The trades studied intensively were the most important ones from the standpoint of the label, and other materials were not available. However, the reviewer is of the opinion that the conditions within the different trades are so varied, that until complete studies of each are made, generalizations with regard to any phase of trade unionism are subject to qualifications.
The author has given us an excellent study of the label as a device of American trade unionism.
JAMES M. MOTLEY.
BERNSTEIN, E., Die Arbeiterbewegung. (Frankfort a M.; Literarische Anstalt Rütten und Loening. 1910. Pp. 203. 3 m.) DELPERIER, L. La protection de la santé des travailleurs du commerce. (Paris: Rousseau. 1910. Pp. 230. 4 fr.)
To be reviewed.
FAGNOT, F., and others. Les problems du chômage.
1910. 2.50 fr.)
GODART, J. La travail de nuit dans les boulangeries.
1910. 3.50 fr.)
JASTROW, J. Das Problem der Arbeitslosen-versicherung und die Grundsätze des wirtshaftlichen Liberalismus. (Berlin: Simion. 1910. Pp. 27. 1 m.)
LANGE, F. A. Die Arbeiterfrage. (Berlin: Buchhandlung Vorwärts. 1910. Pp. 176. 1.50 m.)
MAHEIM, E. Les abonnements d'ouvrier sur les lignes de chemins de fer belges et leurs effets sociaux. Institut Solvay. (Brussels: Misch et Thron. Pp. 230. MALKEIL, T. S. The diary of a shirtwaist striker: A story of the shirtwaist makers' strike in New York. (New York: Coöperative Press. 1910. Pp. 96. 50c.)
OSBORNE, WALTER V. My case: The cause and effect of the Osborne judgment. (London: Nash. 1910. 1s.)
Contains the opinions of the judges given at the several stages of the action.
SAUNDERS, A. T., Compiler. Compensation for industrial accidents. The proceedings of a conference of commissions at Chicago, November 10-12, 1910. (Clinton, Mass.: Amos T. Saunders. 1910. Pp. 362. $1.00.)
This volume consists in the main of a full stenographic report of the proceedings of the seven sessions of this conference. This matter, occupying the first 302 pages of the report, is followed by: Appendix A, a report of the decision of the Supreme Court of Erie County, N. Y. in Earl Ives v. The South Buffalo Railway Co., the first case brought under the new compensation law of that state; Appendix B, an opinion by Professor Samuel Williston, LL.D., of the Harvard Law School, on the "Constitutionality of Workmen's Compensation Acts"; Appendix C, a letter by August Belmont, setting forth the plans and purposes of the National Civic Federation in regard to compensation for industrial accidents; and Appendix D, which contains the drafts of two codes, one compulsory and the other elective, with extensive notes, prepared by a committee appointed by the conference to embody its conclusions in proper form for legislative action.
SCHLESINGER, A. The labor amendment our next job. Published under the auspices of the American Anti-Wage Slavery Society. (New York: Medical Book Co. 1910. Pp. xvi, 222. $1.50.) SLOSSE, A. and WAXWEILER, E. Enquète sur le régime alimentaire de 1,065 ouvriers belges. Institut Solvay. (Brussels: Misch et Thron. Pp. 260. 15 fr.)
Money, Prices, Credit, and Banking
Money and Banking. A Discussion of the Principles of Money and Credit, with Descriptions of the World's Leading Banking Systems. By EARL DEAN HOWARD, in collaboration with JOSEPH FRENCH JOHNSON. (New York: Alexander Hamilton Institute, Modern Business. Vol. V. 1910. Pp. xxiii, 495.) Professor Howard's book holds so closely to the conventional scheme of topics for one-volume treatises on money and banking that detailed statement of its scope is unnecessary. Perhaps the most important innovations are the discussions of dealings in commercial paper (pp. 341-6), and of the relations between the banks and Wall Street (pp. 381-9). The last chapter is a summary of the principles which "should be observed in making any change in our currency and banking system." Professor Howard condemns government paper money, bond-secured bank notes, and the independent sub-treasury system, while he advocates branch banking, guarantee of deposits, centralization of re
DEPT. OF ECONOMICS
serves, separation of commercial from financial banking, and the establishment by national banks of savings, trust, bond and investment departments.
The descriptive part of the book is marred by gross carelessness. For example, Professor Howard says that gold began to disappear from circulation in America after the first legal tender act was passed (p. 61), that the Bland-Allison act authorized the purchase each month of 2,000,000 ounces of silver (p. 172), that gold was made the sole legal tender in 1873 (p. 61), and that the deposits seized by Charles II when he closed the Exchequer had been repaid before the Bank of England was established (p. 395). He gives 1834 as the year in which the American mint ratio was reduced from 16:1 to 15.98: 1 (p. 60), and 1892 as the year of President Cleveland's second inauguration (p. 173). He overlooks the recent amendments by which Canadian banks are allowed to issue notes in excess of their capital (p.410), and by which the national banks are allowed to lend sums exceeding 10 per cent of their capital to single borrowers (p.253). He implies that the plans to establish a clearing for out-of-town checks in Boston failed because of jealousies among the banks (p. 301). Most surprising of all, he represents the AldrichVreeland act as making other than federal bonds legal collateral for government deposits. Since this error appears twice (pp. 259, 375), one wonders whether the writer read his own appendix, in which the law is reprinted.
Slovenly English is not less frequent than misstatement of facts. Professor Howard permits himself to write "The reason for this extraordinary rise is due to the fact," etc. (p. 104); "the gold is recovered by means of quick silver the same as in panning" (pp. 160-1); "in 1890 there was outstanding in circulation three varieties of money," etc. (p. 176); "nobody would ever demand money unless they thought", etc. (p. 205); "the only exception to this are cases," etc. (p. 205); and "the writer knows personally of several banks which increased their reserve during the recent panic until they totalled 75 per cent of their deposits" (p. 257). The critical reader will find many other offenses against the English tongue.
A sprinkling of errors may be condoned in a writer who is blazing a trail through unexplored regions. But the elements of money and banking are not the frontier of economics, and Professor Howard is no pioneer. He offers little in the way of new