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From The London Review, 15 Aug. THE SEARCH AFTER LIVINGSTONE.*

project he had every help not only from the Royal Geographical Society, but from the authorities at the Admiralty. Mr. Young and Mr. Waller agreed that to make the expedition successful it must be confided to a few hands, and that two, or at most three, companions would be all the Europeans he would require. These were Mr. Reid, who had served as carpenter on board the Pioneer for a lengthened term on the Zambesi; Mr. Buckley, an old shipmate, who had cruised with him in the Mozambique Channel; and Mr. Faulkner, formerly of the 17th Lancers, who joined the expedition as a volunteer.


It seems like a thing of yesterday that news arrived of the murder of Dr. Livingstone by the Ma Zitu, and here we have Mr. Young's diary of the search he was appointed to make into the truth of that report, and his discovery of its falsehood. Such an expedition could hardly have been intrusted to abler hands, and it is quite impossible that it could have been more skilfully and successfully carried out. Mr. Young had been Dr. Livingstone's companion in one of his previous explorations, and the Mohammedan, Moosa, who brought In submitting my plans, I had requested the story of the doctor's murder to Zanzibar, and of the Johanna men, had been con- that a steel boat might be supplied to the Livingstone Search Expedition,' of a peculiar constantly under his eye for upwards of a year on the river Shiré. His experience of them struction-an entire novelty in fact. In making the ascent of the river Shiré, which drains off then led him to the conclusion that the first the superfluous waters of Lake Nyassa, one is canon in their creed was to lie, and that brought to a stand-still at the foot of a long the second made stealing from a Christian an staircase of cataracts, at a place called Ma Titti. honest transaction. Therefore, though Moo- For thirty-five miles of latitude, the lake waters sa told his story at Zanzibar with such appear- come tearing and leaping and foaming over casance of probability as convinced Dr. Seward cade after cascade, in their descent from the high and Dr. Kirk that it was true, Mr. Young lake-land of Africa, to the low fever stricken could not resist the impression that it was false plains through which they are henceforth perthroughout. "There were facts," he writes, mitted to flow uninterruptedly to the sea. "which could not be got rid of. There enter the Zambesi, and from its broad channel was the mere ipse dixit of Moosa to go up- to strike off up the Shiró, is an easy task for a on in the first place; and in the second, the boat; but the Murchison Falls' lead up to the man's previous character. An all-pervad- boat of course can pass. The object of the trav portion of Africa best worth visiting, and no ing doubt haunted me. Moosa and his com- eller is to make a détour inland, and launch his panions had deserted the doctor; they dare boat above all these troubled waters. This acnot reappear on the coast, much less claim complished, nothing remains for him henceforth their pay of a British consul, without a sto-but to sail up the remainder of the Shire and ry to justify their turning up, and now their enter its parent lake, the beautifulNyassa' of wits had served them sufficiently to palm Livingstone's discovery. this narrative off; it was so clad with devotion and affection to their leader that on the very face of it there were the traces of untruth to my mind, when I remembered our previous acquaintance. Besides this, what had become of those likely to be faithful to him according to my own judgment? Wakotani, most faithful of all, had deserted; Chuma had fallen dead; and the havildar who had not deserted with the sepoys (long As soon as this little vessel was consince back in India) had most conveniently structed it was named the Search. How, died. The other lads from Bombay-rapidly Mr. Young made his preparations where are they?" With these doubts in his mind, Mr. Young went at once to the President of the Geographical Society, and volunteered to make a rapid dash into the lake regions, and test the Mohammedan's story. A plan for that purpose was sketched between himself and the Rev. Horace Waller, and for carrying out this

"I felt that if a boat could be so constructed that one might screw her together in manageable sections-portions, that is, not too heavy for a the great difficulty of ascending man to carry We could by this these falls would be at an end. manner ascend the rivers, take the boat to pieces at Ma Titti, have her conveyed on men's heads to the upper waters, reconstruct her, and so resume the exploration."

may be guessed from the fact that it was not until the expedition reached the Kongone mouth of the Zambesi that the Search made its first acquaintance with the element for which it was destined. There it parted company with H. M. S. Petrel, and Mr. Young and his companions commenced their voyage, taking along with them two of the ship's cutters. It was not long be*The Search after Livingstone. By E. D. Young. fore they found that the natives were glad Povied by Rev. Horace Waller. London: Simp-of the return of the English amongst them, kin, Marshall, & Co.

"Amongst other things, told my good old hostess that Moosa reported to Dr. Kirk it was in her town that he and her comrades were plundered of their goods. This was too much for her. She waxed wroth most palpably, and I slander which she evidently felt had been flung confess I admired the indignation shown at the at her fair fame by these men, to whom, judging by our present treatment, everything had been done for their comfort.

and throughout the whole expedition most to play, if she had heard that the doctor had met grateful evidence to this effect was appa- his death anywhere in Marenga's vicinity. rent. It has not always happened that Englishmen have been studious to show forth the superiority of civilization amongst savage populations. But in this part of Africa they have uniformly done so, and the consequence is that the impression upon the minds of the natives towards us is one of good will. That reticence of which Mr. Young speaks, as one of the greatest obstacles in the way of procuring information of any kind, has, in a great measure, given place to a feeling of confidence to which he was mainly indebted for the accumulated testimony he obtained of the falsehood of Moosa's report. This is the reward of the justice and humanity which has always been displayed towards the natives of this part of Africa by Livingstone and his companions, and by the Universities' Mission. Dr. Livingstone, indeed, appears to have a peculiar way of attracting the natives, which has done more perhaps to carry him successfully through his extensive travels than

"Standing erect in the middle of her assembled people, she stooped and picked up a handful of sand, and then, looking up to the sky, and again to the ground, she slowly let it trickle from her hand, and with all the solemnity of a heavy oath, declared that every word was utterly false; and I believed her.

"With emphasis she said that Livingstone was her son's great friend, and that he had done all

he could to help him on his way. As to evil befalling him, she knew it was false, and if it had come to him at Marenga's, her son's people would have avenged him, strong as Marenga


his iron courage. "He has," says Mr. Mr. Young has a high opinion of the na-' Young, "the most singular faculty of ingra- tives of this district of Africa. He holds it tiating himself with natives whithersoever to be a mistake, in judging of the native he travels. A frank, open-hearted gener-mind, to suppose it unassailable in its natosity, combined with a constant jocular way ural reticence. The new comer has a barin treating with them, carries him through all. True, it is nothing but the most iron bravery which enables a man thus to move amongst all difficulties and dangers with a smile on his face, instead of a haggard, careworn, or even suspicious look. Certain it is also, that wherever he has passed, the natives are only too anxious to see other Englishmen." A touching instance is given of the veneration in which the Great Explorer is held by the natives. When Mr. Young and his companions reached Mapunda, they found the chief absent, "but his mother, a very intelligent old lady, received us with the most cordial delight, and furnished us with every detail which either her memory or our cross-questioning could suggest." He goes on

rier of mistrust, misconception, and fear to break through which precludes the possibility of placing any firm reliance on native testimony unsupported, until the barrier has been broken through by long contact, and by upright, unswerving integrity of purpose. Then, he says, "I know no one so firmly turned to be your ally at all points as the poor native who has tried you and has not found you wanting." A more severe test of their honesty and fidelity could not well have been supplied than the transfer of the sections of the Search from Ma Titti to the upper waters, when the theft of one of the fifty-seven sections would have rendered the little vessel useless, and would probably have defeated the object of the expedition. Through a march and under a sun which taxed their powers of en"Our hostess was never tired of talking about durance to the utmost, the natives persehim. One very significant fact she detailed. vered until Mr. Young was able to launch The doctor's heart was sick,' she said, on ac- the Search again beyond the Murchison count of Moosa and those who were with him.' Cataracts, and make a clear run into Lake When I told her that their return through her Nyassa. It was while he was rebuilding village was owing to their having deserted their the boat that one of a number of Manganja master, she said they were a set of runaway Ajawa, who were watching the process, recowards; and as to the Ma Zitu, they were nowhere in those quarters at all through which ported that a white man had been seen Livingstone had to pass, and she herself knew some time ago on Lake Pamalombi. He of his having gone on for a month in safety. I had a dog with him, and had left to go furlikewise ascertained that there was a very bitter ther in a westerly direction. Could this be feeling between her people and Marenga's, and Livingstone? When they had been three it would have been a great card for the old lady days on the lake, they stopped to hold parLIVING AGE. VOL. XI. 424

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ley with some natives on the bank, from whom they learned that a white man had been at Pamfundas, on Lake Pamalombi, and had left some time. He was an "Anglesi," and had two Ajawa boys in his company. After several days further voyaging the expedition came upon evidence which left no doubt whatever of the falsehood of Moosa's story. The passage is so interesting that we give it verbatim :

'September 7. We started with a fine breeze in a N. N. W. direction for the main land. We had not proceeded far before it came on to blow, and quickly a gale was upon us which threatened to send the Search and every one on board her to his last home. But a Higher Power was with us, and our extreme peril was only raised up for us to see this guiding hand the more plainly in an hour or two. We reached at last, with great difficulty, a little sandy bay on the east shore of Nyassa-the first boat that had ever touched its margin with her keel.

"And here one of those startling chances, as some would call them, occasioned us the very greatest delight. What shall we say of it then, when I relate that at the place we touched, only one native was visible, and he most sorely frightened: I landed, and going up to his hidingplace, told him we were English; to my utter surprise, the word seemed to disarm him of all fears, and he came towards me, saying how alarmed he was at first, but now all that was over. I asked him how this was. He replied, 'The English are good.' I again questioned him as to how he came to be aware of this fact. What was my supreme satisfaction to hear the poor fellow narrate that an Englishman had gone through his village, and was very kind to them during his stay, making them presents, &c.

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Now began a great cross-examination, which ended in my being as convinced as possible, that not only had an Englishman really been on this east shore of the lake, but that I had thus lit on intelligence in this haphazard way which, like a dream as it was, nevertheless left me without a moral doubt that Livingstone himself was the man in question! All previous calculations, all those shrewd ponderings and siftings of evidence at the Geographical Society, were put an end to by the simple narrative that fell from the lips of this poor native!

"Livingstone, in a word, had not been at the north end of the lake at all, he had set at naught all our fancy-drawn journeyings, and had actually been at this well-nigh southern extreme.

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My informant told me that he lived near a point he showed in the distance jutting out into the lake, saying that it was an Arab settlement, so, after giving my men an hour to dry their clothes, we set sail again, determined to thread out the great traveller's course as well as we could, after being so singularly fortunate as to pitch on a man who could thus give us the very best clue to his having come so far in safety. We had only gone a short way when the gale

began to freshen, so we ran into another well sheltered bay where I descried a few natives.

"I now took very good care to prevent any of my followers going near the people till I myself had every opportunity of first word and of avoiding leading questions. I jumped out when the boat touched the shore, and told them we hands and exclamations of Cha didi,'Cha kowere English. This caused a great clapping of ma,' (it is good, it is well). The head man advanced to me and asked if I had seen the Englishman who had been here in the previous cold season, and who had rested there ten days. I replied, No; where has he gone to?'

A. To Pamfundas. (This I knew to be on the Shiré near its exit from the lake.) "Q. How do you know?


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A. He told me even this same thing.

Q. What was the Englishman like?

"A. You are a tall man, but he was only about so high, but he was of more years. You have much hair on your face; as to the Englishman, no, it was not so.

"Q. Then he did not have any hair on his face?

"A. No: it was not so; on the lip which is above, there was hair.

"Q. Was it blacker than mine?

"A. It was black hair, but there were also white hairs in it.

"I then bade them all sit down. Now, said I, if you will tell me all you know, without any lies, I will give you a fathom of cloth. Then, fixing my eye on the head man, I put the following questions to him, taking good care not a remark or a prompting from any one else broke in without special permission.

"Q. Who had this Englishman with him?

"A. Two tens of people or three tens; but to say how many I cannot. (On referring to his followers, they agreed there must have been some twenty or thirty in the traveller's cortège, but it was pardonable differing as to exact numbers, when they evidently had not counted them.) "Q. Was he dressed as I am? "A. The clothing was almost the same. "Q. What had he on his head?

"A. A covering which was black and a piece of something in front. (Here he imitated the peak of a naval cap most admirably, by holding his hands over his forehead, and knowing as I did that Dr. Livingstone had never worn anything else in Africa but this very head-dressso ill-suited, other travellers would say, for a tropical sun-I gathered heart immensely at this little incident, which really left no doubt at all on my mind as to whom had actually been amongst these people.)

"Q. Had he a shirt on?

A. Yes; one like that of yours. "Q. And other garments; boots like these I have on (pointing to my trousers and boots)?

"A. Yes; skins on the feet like yours, and as to the other things, he had upon his legs some like those (pointing to a pair of blue serge trousers worn by one of the party).


Q. Had he any boxes with him? "A. Yes.

"Q. Tell me what you remember about any of them.

"A. (Laughing.) There was one, a little one; in it there was water which was white; when you touched it, by placing your finger in it-ah! behold it would not wet you, this same white water; I lie not!

"Q. What was it for? what did the Englishman do with it?

"A. He used to put it down upon the ground, and then he took a thing in his hand to look on the sun with.

"Q. Now show me what you mean; how did he do this?

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"This brought out all the singular capability of the savage for pantomimic illustration. The old chief gravely took up a piece of stick, and his actions as he imitated a person taking observations with the sextant's artificial horizon (which, I may explain to my less experienced readers, is a small square trough filled with mercury the white water') could not have been surpassed. The gravity with which he stretched his feet apart and swayed himself backwards to look up at the sun along his piece of stick, and then brought it down to a certain point, was a masterpiece of mimicry. It is a quality common to all savages, and a most amusing half-hour can at any time be got out of them by exercising it. To ask them to describe a hunting scene was a favourite plan; they will imitate the gait of every animal in a manner which would convince a European he had everything to learn in the way of catching salient points and representing them truthfully. But to continue



"Q. Whither did he say he was going? "A. He left us to go northwards; he went to the village of the Arabs; he wanted to cross the water to the other side in their vessel; he could not do this, and in ten days he had returned here; then he went south to Pamfundas. Q. Do you remember the names of any of those who were with him?

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"Here another man present said there was in the party a man who had long black hair, and on the top of his head was a place shorn, or at all events where the hair was cut very short. Mr. Faulkner's long Indian experience at once identified the havilda of the Sepoys-the only remaining one of that faithless brigade which we heard in England deserted the Doctor early in the journey.

"Q. What else had he with him? any beasts that carried burdens?

"A. No; but there was a small dog with him which they called Chitani. •

"Q. Where did the M'Sungu (white man) sleep?

A. Up there (pointing to a certain spot).
What did he lie on ?

"Q. "A. A bed; he made over it a small house of cloth, in which there were little holes everywhere.

"I told him to look round the boat, and tell me if he saw anything of the same kind, when he instantly pointed to my mosquito curtain. "Q. Did he buy slaves?

"A. No. His people told us that their chief said to buy or sell men was a bad and a foul thing, and that far south, on the Shiré river, he had liberated many captives, whom he found being led away as slaves.

"Q. Did you ever see another white man? "A. No.

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There could be little doubt now that the object of the expedition was virtually attained. Every further step confirmed the good news. We need not dwell upon a fact which has long been familiar to our readers. But we will say this, that we have read no recent book of African travel more interesting than Mr Young's account of his of the manner in which he and his compansearch, whether we regard it as a narrative ions performed their arduous task, or as recalling to us the condition of a portion of the human race who have such strong claim upon our sympathies.

From The Spectator.. DEAN RAMSAY ON THE PULPIT.*

THE republication of these two lectures is very opportune. Dean Ramsay is a wise, humorous Scotch Episcopalian, very orthodox, but accustomed to live among people who are not Episcopalians, and therefore, not much tempted to put the special opinions of his Church too obtrusively in front. We might call him the Sydney Smith.of his "denomination," but that it would be unjust, he being more of a true cleric than Sydney Smith; and unkind, as he has obviously a notion, not altogether unjustified, that his true powers lie elsewhere, that he is not so much essayist, though he has written many and good essays, as acceptable preacher of the Word. Whether as essayist or as preacher Dean Ramsay's table talk on the pulpit is worth hearing, the more besermonical English, is not afraid of a joke cause he gives it us in literary and not in if that helps his argument, does not shrink from genuine religious teaching if that serves his purpose, and can on occasion introduce his own views on dogma in the pawkiest way. There is a little extract from a speech of John Wesley's, introduced, one understands, merely as an illustration, and as a sentence the Dean by no means intends to embody in his own sermons; but if the world will listen to it once again, because it is in a book of jottings, the author will pardon their not appreciating anything else. We will extract that paragraph, which is pretty much forgotten, for a reason which does not perhaps differ very widely from the one in the Dean's own heart. If our readers will just glance over that they can leave this review unread, and not hurt us. This was Wesley's idea of the doctrine of Election:

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if you say they would, but He would not, you represent Him-which, who could hear?. weeping crocodile's tears, weeping over the prey which Himself had doomed to destruction. Oh, how would the enemy of God and man rejoice to hear these things were so! How would he cry aloud and spare not! How would he lift up his voice and say, "To your tents, O Israel! Flee from the face of this God, or ye shall utterly perish!"""

If the Spectator had ventured, while saying pretty nearly the same thing last week in feebler words, to use that expression demned for blasphemy. The power of "crocodile tears," it would have been conspeaking plainly, not to say the wish to speak plainly, seems to have gone out of the modern pulpit.

Dean Ramsay divides preaching into five modes, first, the metaphysical, which may dotes: be said to be the style of Scotland, and of which he gives the following pleasant anec

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"As an example of such preaching, and that the driest of the dry-suppose a congregation assembled to listen to a sermon from the celebrated and very learned Dr. Richard Bentley, an eminent man and distinguished preacher of his day. Fancy their excited attention whilst he lays down his heads of discourse. First, I will prove it impossible that the primary parts of our lar motions and revolutions, should have subsistworld, the sun and the planets, with their regued eternally in the present or a like frame and condition. Secondly, I will show that matter, abstractly and absolutely considered, cannot have subsisted eternally; or if it has, yet motion cannot have co-existed eternally with it as an inherent property and essential attribute of the Atheist's God, MATTER.' One of our own Scottish divines, Dr. Macknight, author of an elaborate commentary on the Epistles, and a work on Evidences -an able and learned man-was a remarkable example of this class of preachers. Logical and erudite, he could find no place for the relief of the imagination or of fancy in composing his discourses, could assume no fer

"This doctrine,' he says, represents our blessed Lord, Jesus Christ the righteous, the only begotten Son of the Father, full of grace and truth, as a hypocrite, a deceiver of the peo-vour of enthusiasm in their delivery. Of this ple, a man void of common sincerity; for it can- estimable divine the pleasant story is told of what not be denied that He everywhere speaks as if his colleague slily remarked upon his pulpit He were willing that all men should be saved. ministrations. Dr. Macknight had been overYou represent Him as mocking His helpless crea- taken by a sharp shower in coming to church. tures by offering what He never intends to give. In the vestry, and before the service began, the You describe Him as saying one thing and mean- attendants were doing all in their power to make ing another; as pretending the love which He him comfortable by rubbing him with towels and had not. Him in whose mouth was no guile, other appliances. The good man was much disyou make full of deceit, void of common sincer- composed, and was ever and anon impatiently ity. When nigh the city, He wept over it, and exclaiming, 'Oh, I wish that I was dry,' and said, "Oh, Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that kill-repeating often, 'Do ye think I am dry eneuch est the prophets, and stonest them that are sent now?' Dr. Henry, his colleague, who was preunto thee, how often would I have gathered thy sent, was a jocose man, of much quiet humour. children together, and ye would not!" Now, He could not resist the opportunity of a little hit * Pulpit Table Talk. By Dean. Ramsay. Lon- at his friend's style of preaching; so he patted him on the shoulder, with the encouraging re

don: Cassell.

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