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Canaria. At that time, it is said, the fighting men of the island numbered 14,000, and an old prophecy gave tenacity to their determination to defend to the utmost their country from the invaders. The Spanish commander landed his troops at the port of Gando, but the natives, who had been constantly on the lookout from the battlemented heights of the island, descended and drove them with slaughter to the shore. In this extremity Diego sent a detachment of his troops to the other side of the island in order to make a diversion and divide the forces of the natives. They landed safely, and proceeded to ascend inland without meeting the enemy; it was not till they had reached the top of the pass that they discerned that their movements had been quietly watched, and that retreat was cut off. They marched on, hoping to be able to descend on the other side of the mountain, but presently they found that the path led to an open place surrounded by a high stone wall, a kind of fortress which was used by the Canarians for security in time of war. With a shout of victory the natives surrounded and held the Spanish fast prisoners, and thus they were kept for two days without meat or drink. Death was inevitable, and the slaughter of the Spaniards had been decided upon, when deliverance came in the person of a woman called Maria Lafeiga, a niece of the Prince or Guanarteme of Galdar. This young woman had been a prisoner at Lancerote, and had learned to speak Castilian. She remembered having seen the Spanish captain at Lancerote, and was moved with compassion at his impending fate. She urged the Spaniards to give themselves up unreservedly to her uncle, and to trust to his generosity. The Guanarteme was on his part not loath to do a magnanimous act. Maria became the mediator, and the result was that Diego de Sylva, the Spanish captain, and his followers gave up their arms and left the fortress. The Guanarteme and the Gayrer, or chiefs, showed the Spaniards every kindness and hospitality, after which they undertook to conduct them to their ships. On their way they came to a very high precipitous cliff, where the path of descent was so narrow that only one person could pass at a time. The Spaniards, unused to treat others and to be treated with the simple generosity of the Canarians, concluded that they had been beNEW SERIES.-VOL, LIV., No. 3.

trayed and had been led here to die, upon which they warmly upbraided the Canarians for their breach of faith. Indignation was rife at this false accusation, but, saying nothing in reply, the Guanaiteme stepped forward to Diego de Sylva, and said, "Take hold of the skirt of my garment, and I will lead you down,' and thus each Canarian led a Spaniard safely to the bottom of the cliffs, and to their ships. On parting the Guanches had but one complaint to make, and that was that they should have been thought capable of telling a lie or breaking faith.

De Sylva's gratitude was fervid but short-lived, for though he sent a scarlet cloak and a sword and musket to the Guanarteme, he returned shortly with fresh troops and defeated the Canarians in a pitched battle with great slaughter. Still, however, the island remained unconquered. The aid of the Church and of falsehood was next called into requisition. The Bishop Don Diego Lopez de Yllescas was summoned to select a site for a chapel, and the Canarians were humbly asked to give permission for a chapel to be built on the seashore, in which, as the Spaniards said, they might worship their God after their own fashion. The simple Guanches, scorning a lie themselves and hence not suspecting it in others, gladly gave consent, and even helped in its construction; but, when completed, they discovered to their cost that the chapel was a fort, and that the god the Spaniards worship ped was the god of battles. Delighted at the success of their stratagem, the Spanish commander and the bishop sailed away and left a strong garrison for the first time on Canarian soil. The natives watched their opportunity, and having cleverly one day decoyed the garrison out, they slew some of them and took others prisoners, and razed the fort to the ground. A great expedition from Spain was then fitted out and sent against the recalcitrant islanders, who were defeated in a pitched battleafter the most determined resistance.. Courage is not proof against the deadly bullet, and the Spaniards were beginning to use fire-arms.

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The happy, the innocent days of the Canarians were now gone forever: no more did they rejoice in feats of strength and agility, no more did they dance and sing, and sit tranquil under a safe and hon-ored government; discord had succeeded

to peace, famine and pestilence to plenty, and pomp and religious duplicity to the simple worship of God and goodness. The Spanish conquerors built themselves a city at Las Palmas, on the level lands of the shore, where they quarrelled among themselves and made raids for cattle to the mountains, to which the natives had retired. For twenty years the war was carried on, but one by one the Canarians were driven out of their mountain fast

nesses.

Many are the stories told of courage and magnanimity among the Canarians and of daring among the Spaniards in this dying struggle of a brave and noble race. The last stand was made in 1483. All the fighting men of the Guanches, now numbering only 600, about 1000 women, and the remaining nobles, were collected at a fortified place called Ausite, and were under the command of the youthful Guanarteme of Telde. The old chief or Guanarteme of Galdar had in a previous battle been taken prisoner and sent to Spain, where he had been graciously received by the king and queen. The splendor and power of Spain, and the pomp of the Romish Church, made so profound an impression on his mind, that he was baptized and returned to Gran Canaria determined to preach to his countrymen the futility of further resistance. He mount ed to the fortress which contained all the shrunken strength of Gran Canaria, the remnant of the army of 14,000 fighting men after seventy-eight years' struggle with sticks and stones against the arms, the ships, and the resources of Europe. He was received with respect, silence, and tears. He urged his point, and he gained it. The Canarians laid down their arms and surrendered. Not so, however, the young Guanarteme of Telde, who was betrothed to the daughter of the chief of Galdar. Going to the edge of the precipice with the old faycar, or high priest, they embraced each other, and, calling upon their God, Atirtisma Atirtisma !" they perished together by leaping into the abyss. Shortly afterward the disconsolate bride was baptized and married to a Spanish grandee, Don Ferdinando de Guzman, and thus was consummated the conquest of Gran Canaria.

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The Peak of El Teyde, constantly. vomiting forth flames and lava, long protected Teneriffe from invasion; but the

story of a marvellous and miracle-working image of the Virgin secreted in Teneriffe induced the Spaniards to make a descent on the island with a view to rescue this holy relic from the hands of barbarians. The story of this wonderful image is curious. One day toward the end of the fourteenth century, two Guanche shepherds were driving their flocks down a barrancho, when they noticed that at a certain spot their flocks turned back and showed signs of fear. Unable to compel the sheep to proceed, one of the shepherds went forward to ascertain the cause of alarm, and saw what appeared to him to be a woman dressed in strange and beautiful garments standing in front of a cave. He made signs to her to get out of the way, for it was against the custom of the Guanches for a man to speak to a woman if he met her in a lonely place. As she did not move, he became angry at what he considered the immodest behavior of the woman, and took up a stone to throw at her, when his arm becaine immovable in the position of throwing, and was in great pain. The other shepherd, seeing what had happened, went up to the supposed woman, and found her to be an image, the hand of which he tried to cut off with a sharp stone; but, instead of succeeding, he wounded his own hand severely. Much alarmed, the shepherds. repaired without delay to the king, and told him what had happened. He assembled his council, and with them and a great concourse of people he went to the spot where the shepherds declared they would see the image, and they found it standing as before at the mouth of the cave. No one, however, durst touch it, but the king commanded the two shepherds to take it up reverently, and immediately they did so they were cured. At this the king declared that the image was divine and that no one should carry it but himself, and he took it up and set it in a cave, where it remained and became an object of adoration. A hundred years later Diego de Herrara became anxious to possess this sacred image, and, landing from Lancerote with a party of Guanches who knew where the image was, he secretly conveyed it away and placed it in the cathedral at Rubicon.

But the Virgin was faithful to her Guanches of Teneriffe, and to the dismay of Diego de Herrara and his wife, Donna

Innes Peraza, the image was found every morning with its face turned to the wall, though it was daily replaced. They decided at last to restore it to Teneriffe, and with this purpose set sail with a fleet of vessels and anchored in a port of Teneriffe. Diego was met by the King of Guiamar with an armed force, but when he found that Diego had only come to return the sacred image he loaded him with gifts and gave him free permission to send vessels to trade with Teneriffe. Acting on this treaty of commerce, Sancho Herrara, the son of Diego, was allowed to land and build a fort at what is now known as Santa Cruz. Disputes presently arose between the two peoples, but it was agreed that when such occurred the delinquent should be delivered to the offended party to be punished as thought fit. On a complaint of sheep-stealing being made against some Spaniards they were delivered to the Guanches, who, after reprimanding them, sent them back to their own people; soon afterward a complaint of injury was made against the Guanches, who were accordingly given over to the mercy of Sancho Herrara; but he, forgetting the example of clemency shown him by the Guanches, had all the accused hanged. The Guanches were so enraged at this want of generosity that they rose up and drove the Spaniards out of the island, and razed the fort to the ground.

In 1493 Alonzo de Lugo arrived at Teneriffe with a fleet of ships and 1000 armed men, determined to effect the conquest of the island. There were five kings of Teneriffe, and of these four at once submitted and made terms with the invader. The statues of these traitor kings adorn the market-place of Santa Cruz to this day. But the King of Taora refused to submit; he rallied his fighting men to the number of 300, and demanded of Alonzo what he wanted; to which the Spanish captain replied that he came only to court his friendship, to convert him to Christianity, and to make him a vassal of the King of Spain. To this the King of Taora replied that he despised no man's friendship, that he knew nothing of Christianity, and that as to becoming a vassal of the King of Spain, he was born free and he would die free. Alonzo continued to press forward with his troops, and penetrated into the island as far as Oratavo, where he looted the country and was re

turning with his booty when, in crossing a deep defile or barrancho, the King of Taora fell upon him with 300 Guanches and put him to rout, massacring 700 of his troops. The place is called now Mantanza de Centejo (the slaughter of Centejo) in memory of this battle. Broken and discouraged, Alonzo set sail from Teneriffe, and landed in Gran Canaria, whence he sent to Spain for funds and men. In a short time he returned to Teneriffe with an army of 1000 foot and 70 horse. He landed at Santa Cruz and marched to Laguna. At Taora he met the armed and united forces of the Guanches, with whom he had several fights. The Guanches were, however, so deeply impressed with the order, fighting qualities, and seemingly endless resources of the Spaniards, that they concluded that it was useless to contend with them, and assembling all the chief men of the island, they demanded a conference with Alonzo. They asked him what had induced the Spaniards to invade the island, to plunder the Guanches of their cattle, and to carry the people into captivity? To which Alonzo replied that his sole motive was his desire to convert them to Christianity. After due consideration the Guanches decided to accede to Alonzo's wish and to become Christians, and within a few days the whole of the inhabitants of Teneriffe were baptized. So rejoiced was Alonzo at this peaceable termination of the war that he founded a hermitage on the spot, and called it Nuestra Señora de la Victoria.

Umbrageous Palma had long been a coveted possession by the Spaniards, but excepting numerous marauding expeditions in search of slaves, its conquest was not seriously attempted until Alonzo de Lugo took it in hand in 1490. Having borne his part in the conquest of Gran Canaria, Alonzo grew tired of inactivity, and returned to Spain to obtain funds for a fresh adventure, and received from the king a grant of the conquest of Palma and Teneriffe. He landed at Tassacorta in Palma, and marched inland. The only difficulty met with was at the Caldera, a vast extinct crater with its rugged sides clothed with forest trees and seamed by streams. Here the king and his followers made a final stand against the invaders, who were unable to dislodge them. The

next morning Alonzo proposed a conference and promised the king that if he and his followers would submit to the King of Spain, their liberties and properties would be respected and preserved to them. To this the king replied that if Alonzo would return to the foot of the mountain he would come next day and make his submission. But treachery was found a quicker remedy than treaties, and the unsuspecting natives were, on approaching the Spanish troops, attacked and cut to pieces and their king taken prisoner. The anniversary of this day is celebrated in Palma as that on which the whole island submitted to the King of Spain and the Holy Church.

The end of the story of the Guanches is soon told. Their conquerors forgot as soon as convenient the precepts of the holy religion in the name of which the conquest had been made, and the cruelties and oppressions practised by them on the remaining inhabitants of the once Happy Islands are as horrible as any recorded of the sixteenth century. In Gomera, the governor, Hernand Peraza, being detected in an intrigue with a native woman, was killed by one of her relations in the act of quitting her cave. Goaded into rebellion, and encouraged by the murder of their tyrant, the Gomerans rose and imprisoned his widow, the beautiful and cruel Donna Beatrix Bobadilla, in the castle of the port, which was closely invested. Donna Beatrix sent word to Don Pedro de Vera, governor of Gran Canaria, to come and help her, which he did with men and ships; he raised the siege, released Donna beatrix, and marched against the rebels, who had retired to a mountain fastness. By a stratagem he first made all the non

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fighting Gomerans prisoners, and having induced the mutineers to surrender on the promise that they should pass out unharmed, he put all above fifteen years of age to death, some being hanged, others drowned, and others drawn asunder by horses, and the women and children were sold as slaves. On hearing that the Gomerans in Gran Canaria had declared that they would treat any one who offered an insult to their wives and daughters as Hernand Peraza had been treated, he seized in one night about 200 Gomerans ; the men he put to death, and the women and children he sold as slaves Thus sadly the Guanches learned the lessons of civilization.

Of this interesting race scarcely any trace now remains. In Teneriffe, where the resistance had been less determined, the natives intermarried with their Spanish conquerors, and the type of the modern Teneriffan is obviously that of a mixed race; the Spanish character is also mollified by Guanche blood, and the Teneriffe people are known as being peculiarly gentle and docile. Gran Canaria was so depopulated by the long struggle that it was colonized from Spain, and the lands were divided among the colonists. Hierro became so bare that it was colonized from Flanders. Palma had the same fate. In Gomera the conquerors boasted that in a few years they had reduced the population to 1000 natives, who were driven into the mountains. Of pure-blooded Guanches none remain. Sold into slavery, massacred, robbed of their possessions and degraded, thus perished miserably a race who, though uncultured, had learned the secret of happiness and good government. -Cornhill Magazine.

TELEPATHY.

BY REGINALD COURTENAY.

THE term telepathy must not be introduced without explanation. Some term not yet in common use must be employed when mental phenomena,-influences of mind on mind, not generally seen to be closely related, have to be classed together, and, if possible, brought under one law. The familiar term thought

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transference" has much too limited a meaning. And "telepathy" is already in use. It has been adopted by the Society for Psychical Research, and among other writers, especially by Mr. Edmund Gurney in his very remarkable work, "The Phantasms of the Living." The well-established facts there recorded are more than

sufficient to demonstrate, by cumulative evidence of the strongest kind, the reality of the influences called telepathic. But I dispense with his cases. For my own satisfaction, at least, I have enough of my

own.

In Mr. Gurney's book telepathy is not defined exactly as I would define it here. With him it is "the ability of one mind to impress or be impressed by another mind otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense." Preferring the actual to the possible, I would say that telepathy is an impression or effect produced by one mind upon another otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense," or through no known medium."

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That such effects sometimes occur, under conditions known or unknown, is as certain as it is at present unaccountable. When, for instance, I awake any one out of deep mesmeric sleep, so called, which I have myself produced, by a few transverse passes of the hand at the distance of several yards, and so slight that they could not be felt or heard by him, with, it must be added, a full intention to awake him, and confidence in my power to do so, while similar movements made by a bystander, with whatever accompanying mental effort on his part, would have no effect at all, I exercise a telepathic influence-I produce a telepathic effect. Of the reality of this mysterious influence the proofs are innumerable; but even from a single well-established fact of the kind, one might not unreasonably suspect the existence of a law of nature formerly unknown, and of the discoverable operation of which who shall predict the range?

It was at first seemingly a slight thing that a straw or other light body is attract ed to, and will for a time adhere to, amber or sealing-wax or glass which has undergone brisk friction; yet this was one of the first stepping-stones toward the discovery of the mysterious agent which we term electricity,-an agent operating throughout all matter, animate and inanimate, reaching from the earth to the sun, and probably to the utmost bounds of the seemingly infinite ether, and yet not intractable, but lending itself in most various ways to the service of man.

So with each new telepathic fact, however seemingly trivial; a higher standpoint is attained, the horizon widens, and there

is good reason to believe that the same laws are at work in regions widely dissimilar. One may even suspect that, like electricity in the material universe, so this mysterious agent in the region of the human mind, whether perceptible or not, is still of universal operation, manifesting itself sometimes naturally, sometimes under artificially produced conditions.

With me this suspicion has gradually strengthened, until I have scarcely any doubt that this agency is truly universal. I find it certainly at work in the land of dreams, for one may dream of that which another person is doing, or has lately done, or thought of; and if I give commonplace instances of this, they are no more to be despised on that account than are the electric movements of a straw. Indeed they are all the more valuable, as being further removed from the apparently supernatural. To give, first of all, the simplest.

Many years ago, when residing in the West Indies, two young children of mine were allowed to amuse themselves with a set of red and white ivory chess-men, but not to take them into their nursery. One morning, just before waking, their mother dreamed that she received a letter from England, enclosing the head or upper half of a red ivory knight, from a friend, who supposed that the piece must belong to her. On entering her nursery not many minutes afterward, a little boy ran up to her, crying, "See what I have found !'' and holding up the identical piece dreamt of the knight's head. The chances against this, considered as a mere coincidence, are enormous. Supposing it not improbable that there should be some dream relating to one of the pieces used in the game of chess, and not improbable even that it should be the prominent feature in the dream, still it might with equal probability have occurred on any day within a certain period of three years. And even supposing it not improbable, though in fact it was an isolated case, that a piece should get into the nursery, the coincidence in time remains to be accounted for, and also the identity of the piece found with that dreamed of. I calculate the chances at more than one hundred thousand to one.

On the telepathic theory of a mental sympathy between the mother and her child, all is perfectly simple. The child,

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