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Of Sunday observance, we hear "there is no kingdom where Sunday is better observed than in England; for, so far from selling things on that day, even the carrying of water for the houses is not permitted; nor can any one play at bowls, or any other game, or even touch a musical instrument or sing aloud in his own house without incurring the penalty of a fine." Of our customs and peculiarities, we have the following account : "It is not customary to eat supper in England. In the evening they only take a certain beverage which they call botterdel; it is composed of sugar, cinnamon, butter, and beer brewed with out hops. This is put in a pot, set before the fire to heat, and is drank hot. The English have this peculiarity, that they do not speak when any one drinks in their company. This nation is tolerably polite, in which they have in a great measure a resemblance to the French, whose modes and fashions they study and imitate. They are in general large, fair, pretty well made, and have good faces. They have a great respect for their women, whom they court with all imaginable civility. It is true they are handsome, and naturally serious; nevertheless, they rather choose to walk with a young man or bachelor than with one that is married, as I have many times observed. They always sit at the upper end of the table, and dispose of what is placed on it by helping every one, entertaining the company with some pleasant conceit or agreeable story. In fine, they are respected as mistresses, whom every one is desirous of obeying; and, to speak the truth, England is the paradise of women, as Spain and Italy is their purgatory. Strangers in general are not liked in London, even the Irish and Scots, who are subjects of the same king. The English are good soldiers on

the land, but more particularly so at sea; they are dexterous and courageous, proper to engage in a field of battle, where they are not afraid of biows. The eldest sons of the Kings of England bear the title of Prince of Wall [sic] which is a province of England, long governed by its own sovereign princes. The inhabitants of this province are the least esteemed of all others in England, insomuch that it is an affront to any man to call him Vvelchmen'-that is to say, a man of the province of Wales. According to the custom of the country, the landladies [of inns] sup with strangers and passengers; and if they have daughters they are also of the company, to entertain the guests at table with pleasant conceits, where they drink as much as the men. But what is to me the most disgusting of all this is, that when one drinks the health of any person in company, the custom of the country does not permit you to drink more than half the cup, which is filled up and presented to him or her whose health you have drank. Moreover, the supper being finished, they set on the table half a dozen pipes and a packet of tobacco for smoking, which is a general custom as well among women as men, who think that without tobacco one cannot live in England, because, say they, it dissipates the evil humors of the brain. M. de Rocheford left London by the common Oxford waggon, and proceeded through different parts of England, Scotland, and Ireland, meeting with divers adventures, including a street-brawl at Chester with a "young, giddy-headed fellow," who had said that



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he should not fear two Frenchmen.' The Irish question was then, as now, unanswered; and M. de Rocheford is of opinion that "if any Catholic Prince was to attempt the conquest of Ireland

.. he would be readily seconded by the inhabitants. On this account perhaps it is that there are garrisons in all the maritime places, and the entries and ports are always guarded." At Drogheda he attended a surreptitious mass, where he saw "before Mass above fifty persons confess, and afterward communicate with a devotion truly Catholic, and sufficient to draw these blind religionists to the true faith. The chapel in which the priest celebrated Mass was not

Whether that progress is as sure as it is slow, is a question that may be answered when some future Frenchman gives our posterity his impressions of "John Bull et son Ile" in the twentieth cen

better adorned than the chamber; but God does not seek grand palaces, he chooses poverty and pureness of heart in those that serve him.' As a pendent to M. Perlin's earlier account, these travels are interesting, and indicative of tury.—Spectator. our national progress in а hundred years.


MR. EDWIN ARNOLD'S "Light of Asia" is being translated into Bengali, and is also likely to be reproduced in India in a Sanscrit


IT is understood that Prince Krapotkine, who is to be liberated from his French prison in the course of the present month, and who has accepted a number of commissions from English editors and publishers, has resolved to take up his residence in this country.

BARON MIKLOUHO-MACLAY, the Russian naturalist, expects to complete by the end of 1885 his work on the explorations he has made in the islands of the Pacific. It will then, in all probability, be published simultaneously in Russian and English. This important work may be preceded by a biography of M. Miklouho-Maclay.

'PROF. BÜHLER, of Vienna, has written an essay on the alphabet of the ancient palmleaves of Horiuzi. He shows that the discovery of this alphabet supplies a new starting-point for palæographic researches into the history of the Indian alphabet. Prof. Bühler's essay will be published as an Appendix to the next number of the Anecdota Oxoniensia, containing the text of the two palm-leaves, edited and translated by Prof. Max Müller and Mr. Bunyia Nanjio, M. A.

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THE American "Wolfe Expedition to Babylonia, will be under the auspices of the American Archæological Institute; and it is hoped that Messrs. Sterrett and Clark, two of the members of the Assos Expedition, will take part in this also. The entire expenses will be borne by Miss Catherine L. Wolfe, of New York, from whom the expedition takes its name. is proposed that the party shall start in the autumn of this year and remain absent for about six months. The chief object is not so much excavation or the discovery of inscriptions, etc., as a topographical examination of the ground with a view to determining future sites for digging.

ON the 28th of June a considerable number of Russian men of letters assembled in the Volkovsky graveyard to honor the memory of Tourguénief upon occasion of the consecration of the tombstone which has just been placed over his remains. It consists of a slab of black granite, which rests upon a base of gray granite. It bears the brief in"Ivan Serguëevich Tourguénief, scription, 1818-1883."

MESSRS. FIELD & TUER have engaged to pay the sum of 1500l. to M. Max O'Rell, the author of "John Bull et son Ile," for the right of publishing his own English translation of his forthcoming book, which is to appear almost simultaneously in Paris, London, and New York. The new volume is to consist of humorous sketches on English social life.

THE Old Testament Company of Revisers have just finished their labors. The preface has been finally revised and approved. As the work has to be submitted to Convocation before its issue to the public, it is not very likely to be published before next Easter. A dinner was given immediately by Dr. Ginsburg to celebrate the conclusion of the revision. There were present the Bishop of Winchester, the Bishop of Bath and Wells, the Dean of Peterborough, Mr. Bensley, Dr. Chance, Mr. Cheyne, Principal Douglas, Prof. Driver, Prof. Stanley Leathes, Prof. Lumby, and Mr. Aldis Wright. Lord Shaftesbury and Lord Aberdeen were invited to meet the revisers. They can do nothing in England, even to revising the Bible, without a dinner party.

MR. JOHN JACOB ASTOR has presented to the Astor Library sixteen rare MSS. and books, recently purchased in Europe for upward of 30,000 dollars (£6000). Among the MSS. are an Evangelistrarium on vellum of the ninth century; one of the perfect copies of Wyclif's New Testament, with the autograph of Richard III., also on vellum; and an il

luminated Missal according to the Use of Sarum, circ. 1440. The books include Durandi Rationale Divinorum Officiorum (Furst & Schoeffer, 1459); a Vulgate (Furst & Schoeffer, 1462); the Complutensian Polyglot Bible (six volumes, 1514); imperfect copies of Tyndale's Pentateuch (1530) and of Coverdale's Bible (1535); and Elliot's Bible (1661).

MR. H. F. WATERS, the London agent of the New England Historical Society, has discovered a map of Massachusetts, believed to have been made by Governor Winthrop between 1632 and 1635. It marks the settlements at Boston, Salem, Dorchester, etc., the outlying.Indian tribes, and even some of the houses of the colonists.

THE "Chroniques de Normandie," which brought the sum of 51,000 frs. at the first Didot sale in 1878, has come into the market again. Mr. Quaritch, the great bibliopole and archæological bookseller of London, became the fortunate possessor of this splendid MS. at a comparatively low price (£980), at the sale-room of Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson, & Hodge, on July 9th. The miniatures display rare beauty and delicacy of execution; and eight of them depict scenes of English historical interest in events of the lives of Harold and William the Conqueror and in the death of Coeur-de-Lion.

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At the

same sale, a MS. of the "Coutumes de Normandie" also fell to Mr. Quaritch. Like the Chroniques," it is a work of the fifteenth century, and of striking artistic merit. The miniatures in the "Coutumes" are not of such high quality in design as those of the Chroniques;" but in freshness and vividness of color, and in the richness of accessory ornament, they are unrivalled.'

THE popular Norwegian poet, Andreas Munch, died at his house at Vedbæk, in Denmark, on the 27th ult. He was born at Christiania on the 29th of October, 1811. His plays, especially Salomon de Caus, 1854, and Lord William Russell, 1857, enjoyed a great success on the stage of the three Scandinavian countries. He was the author of a very large number of volumes of lyrical, elegiacal, and romantic verse; and he translated Walter Scott and Tennyson into his native tongue.

AN interesting history of the Parsis, written by a Parsi gentleman of much distinction, will shortly be published. The author is Mr. Dosábhai Frámji Karaka, C.S.I.,, late Sheriff of Bombay, and now Chairman of Her Majesty's

Bench of Justices in that city. He has devoted a great deal of trouble and many years' research to the exhaustive description of the manners, customs, and religion, as well as the political history of his compatriots. Mr. Dosábhai Frámji published twenty-six years ago a small volume on the same subject, which was very successful; but his present work is much more elaborate, and, it may be added, instructive also, than its predecessor. The work will be illustrated, and published, in all probability, by Messrs. Macmillan & Co. in October.

THE inhabitants of Winchester, England, have decided to perpetuate the seven hundredth anniversary of the mayoralty of the city of Winchester by the publication of the ancient charters and other records illustrative of the early history of the city and corporation, including facsimiles of some of the earliest charters and other documents of interest and importance. It is proposed that the book shall be published uniformly with "The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland," published under the direction of the Master of the Rolls. It will contain, besides copies of the muniments in the possession of the corporation, transcripts of the "Liber de Winton" (being two returns taken on oath relating to the property in the city of Winchester, in 1110 and 1148, commonly known as "The Winchester Doomsday Book"), of records preserved in the Public Record Office, the British Museum, and in the archives of the Dean and Chapter of Winchester and of Winchester College, as well as documents from public and private collections.

A NEW legal periodical under the title of The Law Quarterly Review, to be edited by Mr. Frederick Pollock, will soon be started in England. The objects of the Review will include the discussion of current decisions of importance in England and elsewhere; the consideration of topics of proposed legislation, the treatment of questions of immediate political and social interest in their legal aspect, and inquiries into the history and antiquities of our own and other systems of law and legal institutions. Endeavor will also be made to take account of the legal science and legislation of continental states in so far as they bear on general jurisprudence, or may throw light by comparison upon problems of English or American legislation. The current legal literature of the English speaking peoples will receive careful attention; and works of serious importance, both English and foreign, will oc

casionally be discussed at length. The Review seeks to appeal to students of legal science and legal history, and to citizens interested in understanding or improving the laws they live under, not less than to lawyers by profession. On the scientific side the comparative and historical study of institutions, and on the practical side the affairs of living politics and commerce, have relations with legal knowledge and ideas which can and ought to be made intelligible to educated citizens who are not lawyers.


and then of the other-so perfectly honest in each mood of thought that he is unconscious, like a child, of inconsistencies of language. He is, in fact, from first to last something of a child in unconscious impulse, in freedom of talk, and in the quick resentful hastiness with which he deals his blows and emphasizes them without reflecting, as in the controversy with Erasmus; how they may fall and injure one truth, while defending another.- The Nineteenth Century.



AN ENGLISH IDEA OF AMERICAN FINANCIERS. The intolerable tolerance of American feeling toward speculators greatly increases the risk in investing in American bonds. No president of a railroad is ever punished either for misrepresentation or for committing his shareholders to the maddest enterprises. If he succeeds he is considered a great man, and if he fails he is pitied, and sometimes presented In with great sums to live on. Even the president of a bank is not held criminally liable for loans to his own relatives without security, if only his friends, when he has failed, will pay up his defaults. The manager of a deposit bank who uses deposits to buy "blocks" of shares is, if the shares rise, considered clever, and if they fall and he fails, is, after the first twenty-four hours, neither considered treated as a mere thief. If he is well connected, or popular, or sheltered by friends, his "ruin" is regarded as a sufficient penalty, and after a year or two of retirement he usually begins again. The effect of this is, that any one who can obtain the control of large funds is tempted to make himself rich at once, and that the market is always at the mercy of. men who are playing a game in which they stake temporary inconvenience and disrepute against fortune. The temptation is too great for a race of men who care more to gain money in large sums than any people in the world, and at the same time fear poverty less than any other people. Millionaires in America make "corners" as if they had nothing to lose, or let their sons amuse themselves with "financing" as if it were only an expensive game.

MARTIN LUTHER.-Luther was no doubt always a man of powerful and unguarded impulse. His words were like living things, and went straight to their mark. He did not weigh them like a more cautious nature, and think of all their effect. But this is only to say that he was Luther, and not another. order to judge him rightly we have to take him not merely in one mood, but in many moods. It is not a subtle criticism, however it may seem to be so, to look at his large nature now on this side and now on that to contrast his tenderness with his coarseness, or his (alleged) antinomianism with the deep breathings of his piety-his materialism with his holiness. No doubt there were these contrasts in him. But are they not more or less in all men, and especially men of the massive build of Luther? What is remarkable in him is not the presence of such contrasts, but the frankness with which he gave expression to them. He was real and simple to the core. He had a marvellous power of utterance, and like many men who have this irrepressible fluency by word or pen, his utterance for the moment not only came from his heart, but seemed to himself the whole utterance of his heart-all truth for the time. But his heart was larger than he thought, and his mind had other depths than he poured forth at separate moments. And we only rightly understand him not in this mood or that, but when we take him as a whole, and recognize that it is one living being who is thus moved so diversely, and that we have to read into the one Luther all these chords of feeling. The schisms, in short, that we recognize in him are in his words more than in himself. He is not now on the side of nature and now on the side of grace, and then of law; but nature and grace and law all meet in his massive humanity, as he speaks now with the tongue of the one


An Englishman, however speculative he may be, fears poverty excessively, and a Frenchman shoots himself to avoid it; but an American with a million will speculate to win ten, and if he loses take a clerkship without thinking much about it. There is a good side, a very good side, to the "detachment" noticeable in all American business men, a freedom from sordidness and from petty

grasping; but the peculiarity makes them the most dangerous business gamesters in the world. You know in dealing with a Frenchman that he will not voluntarily risk pecuniary ruin, but to an American that risk rather adds to the excitement of his pursuit. What, indeed, is ruin, in that exhilarating air, with nobody caring, and thirty-six States around you offering to the skilful 36,000 ways of making money? An attack of dyspepsia is far worse; and, in fact, when a prominent American is ruined, we generally hear that he is "sick," and that his friends upon that account are full of anxiety for his future-The Spectator.

THE OLD ROMAN VILLA.-The Roman patricians, like the English, kept their house open in the capital, and a house worthy of the social position of the owners, in which hospitality was practised during the winter season, as it is practised now during the London season. However, the Roman season was exceedingly short. As soon as the first symptoms of the coming spring were felt the patricians dispersed themselves among their villas, which encircled and surrounded the town, between the fourth and the tenth milestones from the milliarium aureum. Being so near the centre of business, they could attend their duties day by day without much inconvenience; they could administer the cura aquarum, annonæ, Tiberis et cloacarum, or act in their capacity of Judges, of Prefects of the Pratorii et Urbis; they could also perform their Parliamentary duties. At the same time the comparative seclusion of their charming residences (in which private stadia, ludi, and hippodromi represent the lawn-tennis, cricket, and coursing grounds of to-day) enabled them to enjoy a comparative rest, to watch more closely the education of their children, to acquire fresh energy and higher spirits for their next journeys in the faraway provinces of the empire. These villas accordingly must be considered to have been more like town residences than country seats, and were occupied only before and after the heat and the malaria of the summer months; they were not occupied in summer. The theory is proved to be correct by the fact that many patrician families owned two or more villas within a radius of a few miles, but at different levels-one nearer to the city and within the reach of malaria; the other on the Alban, Tusculan, and Tiburtine hills, above the level of the suspicious districts. The two brothers, Quintilius Condianus and Quintilius Maximus, possessed a large estate at the fifth


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milestone of the Appian Way, 320 feet above the sea, and a still larger one at the twelfth milestone of the Via Tusculana, 800 feet high. The Valerii Messalæ likewise had one near painted tombs" on the Via Latina, and another near Marino. I might quote other names and other instances of the same fact., The villas near Rome have the best apartments looking south, those on the hills have the apartments looking north-a particular which supplies supplementary evidence in favor of the theory stated above.— The Athe


THE EDICT OF NANTES.-To stamp out the Protestant schism and reunite the sects of the Catholic Church had been the dream of Bossuet's life, ever since his early days at Metz, then one of the chief centres in France of the reformed doctrine. To promote the realization of this dream he labored incessantly, by controversial publications and conferences, by correspondence with eminent sectaries, and sometimes by more questionable expedients; such, for instance, as invoking the royal prerogative to force Catholic professors on the Protestant seminaries, and to banish Protestant places of worship to the outskirts of the large towns. His short treatise, " An Exposition of the Catholic Faith upon Controversial Points," first published in 1671, had been composed several years before for the benefit of Marshal Turenne, whose conversion it achieved; and in manuscript form it had enjoyed a considerable circulation, and recovered many to the obedience of Rome. Of this exposition the tone was singularly moderate and persuasive. Its object was to show that

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many of the Protestant objections disappear altogether as soon as the Catholic doctrines are really understood, and that even such as seem to Protestants to be not wholly removed sink into insignificance, and cannot affect the foundations of the faith. " So anxious was Bossuet in this treatise to smooth the path of conversion that the Protestants had plausible ground for charging him with having unduly pared down the Catholic tenets, to render them the more easy to be swallowed by the ignorant; an accusation to which Bossuet replied by saying, "That the least thing which could be granted to a bishop was that he knew his own religion, and spoke without disguise in a matter in which dissimulation would be a crime." The little work was translated into many languages, among others into English; and there is a historical interest in the anec

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