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to come from darkness to light. Civilization defined, as I have defined it, will induce a man to approach another in the two ways named just now. It will labor to improve him in conduct and character. This is a very different thing from telling him that unless he cuts a canal through his country, or buys piece goods of your Manchester, you will bombard his towns, land on his coast, and dictate a treaty to him in his capital."
"6 We shall be led in a direction in which we do not wish to go if we suffer you to proceed without interruption," said Waverton. "Your beneficent civilization with all its professions of respect for the territorial rights of others is to be, after all, an aggressive mission ary power.
"Besides," added Mainwaring, "you have to remember one thing after all. We desire an outlet for our manufactures and employment for our young men. You will both call me a Philistine, but you cannot dispute the truth of the statement. England is not an educational establishment. It is a mercantile firm anxious to increase the number of its customers. The Western must approach the Eastern in one of three ways, by war, by religion or by trade. Now, though recent facts tell against me, I am amoptimist enough to say that I believe fighting is going out. It is possible that the growth of scepticism may drive the clergy in despair of doing anything at home to go out in larger numbers than they have hitherto done, and so missions may become an important factor in the question; but it is certain that we shall go on manufacturing cotton goods, and that we shall be obliged to make people buy them. It is a material question after all. The countries that tried to keep us out have one by one been compelled to open their ports. The The diapason of our policy' is commerce. It is impossible to ignore the moving power of the world. In the days of old the cities rose into prominence and sunk into decay as the trade stream washed their busy quays. Coptos, whence the clerks and book-balancing caste of Egypt takes its name, is the emporium one day.' After a while Myos Hormos has greater
See the inimitable burlesque prospectus in Mr. Mackenzie Wallace's. Egypt and the Egyptian Question," p. 49.
advantages and supersedes Coptos, to be in turn thrust into the background by Phlioteras Portus, which had a commercial reputation in the days of the Pharaohs. As it was in the beginning so it is to-day. It is not ethical theories but by mutual interests that the nations will be guided in their treatment of each other.
Malreward replied, speaking rapidly and earnestly
"This might have been the last word on the question some years ago, but we have learned, I sincerely believe, that this is not the sum of the whole matter. Believe me, the question has widened. There is a fourth speaker, who will have to be listened to. Besides the soldier, the missionary and the merchant there is the man in politics,'* not the politician remember; and if he says, with no uncertainty in his tone, what shall be our animating principle, and appeals to the national conscience we shall find that henceforth the dealings of states with each other will be swayed by higher laws than have been recognized before. what we can get out of the country, but what we can make of the man in it will be the first consideration. I do hope that a beginning is being made here in Egypt. It seems to me that this occupation is one of the greatest events in the history of the world. It is an opportunity which is an importunity crying, trumpet-tongued, to every man concerned to try and make this the startingpoint of a new policy. The unique character of this country makes it a duty of extraordinary interest, and of course of extraordinary difficulty."
We are all agreed as to the difficulty," said the two listeners, for Malreward's flowing speech compelled them to adopt that subordinate part. "I grant,
continued Malreward, that we are here under circumstances that can never be expected to recur, but I do say that if we even partially suc
The whole passage whence the quotation comes is worth reading: "It is specially true that he who holds offices of public trust runs a thousand hazards of sinking into a party man instead of man employing party instrumentality for its ulterior purposes into a politician instead of man in politics; into an administrator instead of man in administration."-Mr. Gladstone in "The State in its Relations to the Church."
We had to begin with that, though, you must admit-" muttered Mainwaring; but Malreward took no notice of the interruption save by repeating the sentence he had just uttered, with more incisive emphasis
We are not here to mow men down with shot and shell, or to force them to change their religion, or to oblige them to change graceful garments for hideous ones. We are here, as I believe from my heart, with a single eye to the good of a people whose past has been piteous and hard beyond all words. We have come from our Western home on a mission which is many missions-in a word, we are going as far as I know for the first time to try and make six millions of human beings make the most of the powers God has given them, and the country God has put them in. Just look at it in this light. A man acquires wide reputation if he secures the passing of one benevolent law through Parlia ment; we are going to readjust all the laws of a nation. A man gains the credit of being an enlightened statesman if he removes a single encumbering weight from the parliamentary machine; we are going to create an entire constitution. A man is held to have deserved an honorable place in history if he introduces an improved agricultural process on farm or field; we have promised to improve the productive powers of the whole of the Nile Valley. Army reform, sanitary reform, educational reform-all the tasks that have hitherto been undertaken slowly and hesitatingly when they are demanded for ourselves, we are going to undertake for a people to whom we are bound by the slenderest ties and whose fields we are pledged to leave directly we see them white to the harvest our efforts have enabled them to reap. For years I have been weary of our political shortcomings and social hypocrisies; but I aver that this high enterprise gives me hopes of our England-yes! and of the reality of the progress of our epochs that I have been a stranger to of late. It is surely re
freshing to turn from the subjects with which the thoughts of the English people have been employed for the last three or four years, to this attempt at unselfish political action. It proves that we really feel that we are stewards, not owners. It shows that we acknowledge that the vast estate of science and learning, and experience, is not to be used to aggrandize England, but is to be regarded as charged with debts to others-freely we have received, freely we should give :
666 No man is the lord of any thing, Though in and of him there be much consisting, Till he communicate his parts to others: Nor doth he of himself know them for aught Till he behold them form'd in the applause Where they're extended; who, like an arch, reverberates
The voice again, or, like a gate of steel
This is a new doctrine in politics, and savors too strongly of the romantic school for me," said Mainwaring. "I think we shall have to pay dearly for furnishing you with an acted commentary on your definition of civilization. We have two legitimate and obvious courses open to us; either of them would have been intelligible to the Egyptians and the European powers. They are briefly 'to go' or ' to stay.' There can be no doubt that we should have done good by the last course, but we will not discuss the question. I see one vulnerable point in your argument, however, which must not be passed over. You represent England as the inheritor of a storehouse of precious gifts, sciences, arts, and experiences, and you say she shows herself in a new and noble light when she gives of her abundance to Egypt, and sends her best men to undertake an enterprise as splendid in its unselfishness as it is bold in the novelty of its conception." "But-".
Malreward interrupted, and continued, half answering the objector, half speaking to himself—
"That it bristles with difficulty I admit, but it is something to have made an attempt so novel and so generous. Should it not succeed I can only adopt Mrs. Siddons's reading of the great pas
*Troilus and Cressida, Act iii. sc. 3.
sage in Macbeth, and say, if the worst comes to the worst, We fail;' but failure in such an attempt is better than victory with meaner motives, and it is better to be defeated in an attempt to drag Egypt from the sphinx-like shadow of an immemorial despotism than to add our names to the long catalogue of tyrants who have attempted to keep her under the black shadow beneath which her strength has dwindled and her energies withered for thirty centuries of bondage.'
"But-" said Mainwaring, "for I rebel against being overwhelmed by your words, however grandiloquent and copious-you say we have given of our best. I say, in all fairness, we have not done so, for we have never had the courage of our Christian convictions. We are holding back and carefully keeping behind, our Christianity; and though we know that Mohammedan institutions are the real cause of Egypt's weakness, we are discouraging every attempt to reform El Islam. If a missionary were to make a convert of an Arab to-morrow, should we not do all we could, in the timidity begotten of a faith professed only with the lips, to compel him to keep his convictions to himself?"
Malreward hesitated for a moment before he replied.
"I admit the truth of a part of your statement. In these days, a power intrusted with the charge of reforming a Mohammedan population must copy the Gallio of history, who, recollect is not the Gailio of the evangelical pulpit. The champions of liberty must remember that liberty in religion is the highest form of freedom, and for the present we may apparently put that last which should be first.'
"I am glad I have got you to concede that much at all events, for that concession convicts us of unreality." said Mainwaring.
'I am not disposed to agree with you," replied Malreward, though I admit how telling and plausible your accusation seems. No the motive power which induces us to make this attempt is the Spirit of the Divine Founder of Christianity. In every other case apparently akin to this that I recall, there has been a difference which, if rightly considered, proves the length and firm
ness of the step we have made. Hitherto we have sent sailors and soldiers in thousands, and traders, who, though perhaps good Christians enough, have never attempted to conceal the overmastering selfishness of their motives. This great body of soldiery and merchants has been accompanied, perhaps preceded, by a handful of missionaries. effect, from the nature of the case, there has been one apostle of Christ and a thousand apostles of Mars and Mammon. The nature of this attempt makes every man, be he soldier or civilian, lawyer or man of science, a missionary.
"I wish," said Mainwaring, despondingly, "I wish I could see a gleam of hope of all this coming true. I have not had time to study the country for myself, but from all I have read, I should say you will only galvanize the officials into activity for a few months. By August all their promises will have been forgotten, and by the end of the year most of your lay missionaries who started high in hope in the autumn of 1882 will have sent in their resignations or returned, broken in health and spirits, anxious to bury in oblivion their share in the civilization campaign. Remember this is not the first time when an illustrious statesman has dreamed of the regeneration of Africa and the beneficent reflex action of such a regeneration on Europe. Waverton will supply us with the peroration of Pitt's memorable speech, for it is a stock passage for every budding orator to commit to memory.
Waverton was pleased at being able to comply with the request, and repeated the lines:
Then also will Europe, participating in African improvement and prosperity, receive an ample recompense for the tardy kindness, if kindness it can be called, of no longer hindering that continent from extricating herself out of the darkness which in other more fortunate regions has been so much more speedily dispelled.
"Nos. . . primus equis Oriens afflavit anhelis, Illic sera rubens accendit lumina vesper."
"I do not want a stronger passage in support of my case, ,"replied Malreward. "Look at the map of Africa in Pitt's time, a blank of unexplored regions, and compare it with the map of Africa now, and you see how much has been done in the seven decades that have passed since that speech was delivered. Because the explorer, the missionary, the colonist, have done so much, I have confidence that they will do more. Compare the Egypt of to-day with the Egypt of the Mameluke beys, and surely, in spite of its long furrows. of suffering, we see traces of improvement and auguries of hope."
The travellers waited until he had ended his devotions. Then ordered their carriage, and drove back to Cairo in silence.
A jagged cloud crossed the moon's disk, and a trick of flitting shadow gave to the great stone lips of the mysterious creature the semblance of a cynic smile.-Macmillan's Magazine.
BY THE LATE CHARLES KINGSLEY.
LIST a tale a fairy sent us
Fresh from dear Mundi Juventus.
When Love and all the world was young,
And men still faced this fair creation
In russet she, and he in yellow,
Singing ever clear and mellow,
Sweet, sweet, sweet, sweet, sweet you, sweet you,
Phyllophneustes wise folk call them,
the rising sun shot through the windows of the House in the midst of this final passage, and seemed as Pitt looked upward to suggest to
him without premeditation the eloquent simile and the noble Latin lines with which he concluded."-Stanhope's "Life of Pitt," p_146.
Till an Arab found them playing
Tried to keep the blows away,
"Sweet, sweet, sweet, sweet, sweet you, sweet you,
Did he beat you? Did he beat you ?''
Vultures croaked, and hopped and flopped,
But their evening meal was stopped.
And the gaunt hyenas foul,
Sat down on their tails to howl.
Northward toward the cool spring weather,
These two wrens fled on together,
On to England o'er the sea
Where all folks alike are free.
There they built a cabin, wattled
Like the huts where first they prattled,
Hatched and fed, as safe as may be,
Many a tiny feathered baby.
But in autumn south they go
Past the straits, and Atlas' snow,
Over desert, over mountain,
To the palms beside the fountain,
Where, when once they lived before, he
Told her first the old, old story.
What do the doves say? Curuk-Coo,
You love me and I love you."